Plantae > Tracheophyta > Liliopsida > Poales > Poaceae > Triticum > Triticum aestivum

Triticum aestivum (common wheat; wheat)

Synonyms: Frumentum triticum; Triticum aestivum subsp. vulgare; Triticum aristatum; Triticum aristatum aestivum; Triticum cereale var. aestivum; Triticum sativum; Triticum sativum var. aestivum; Triticum sativum var. sinense; Triticum sativum var. vulgare; Triticum vulgare; Triticum vulgare var. aestivum; Triticum vulgare var. aristatum

Wikipedia Abstract

Common wheat (Triticum aestivum), also known as bread wheat, is a cultivated wheat species. About 95% of the wheat produced is common wheat, which is the most widely grown of all crops, and the cereal with the highest monetary yield.
View Wikipedia Record: Triticum aestivum



Height [3]  4.9 feet (1.5 m)
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Hardiness Zone Minimum [2]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Light Preference [4]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [4]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [4]  Rich
Soil Moisture [4]  Moist
Water Use [2]  Low
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Early Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Medium
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  None
Flower Type [3]  Hermaphrodite
Frost Free Days [2]  3 months 10 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Spring
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Summer
Growth Form [2]  Bunch
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Fall, Winter
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Leaf Type [2]  Deciduous
Lifespan [3]  Annual
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Seed
Root Depth [2]  18 inches (46 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  High
Seeds Per [2]  11360 / lb (25044 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Structure [5]  Grass
Usage [3]  The straw has many uses, as a biomass for fuel etc, for thatching, as a mulch in the garden etc; A fibre obtained from the stems is used for making paper; The stems are harvested in late summer after the seed has been harvested, they are cut into usable pieces and soaked in clear water for 24 hours. They are then cooked for 2 hours in lye or soda ash and then beaten in a ball mill for 1
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Triticum aestivum

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Arches National Park II 76539 Utah, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Avon Gorge Woodlands 376 England, United Kingdom
Burnham Beeches 946 England, United Kingdom  
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Chickamauga & Chattanooga Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 8248 Georgia, Tennessee, United States
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Fort Donelson National Battlefield III 560 Tennessee, United States
Fort Larned National Historic Site III 706 Kansas, United States
George Washington Birthplace National Monument V 435 Virginia, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
H.J. Andrews Biosphere Reserve 15815 Oregon, United States
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Lanín National Park II 536819 Neuquen, Argentina
Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument V 755 Montana, United States
Los Alerces National Park II 463045 Chubut, Argentina  
Lower Derwent Valley 2263 England, United Kingdom
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Lundy 7573 England, United Kingdom  
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve 5901 California, United States  
Moor House – Upper Teesdale 95867 England, United Kingdom
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North Somerset and Mendip Bats 1387 England, United Kingdom
Obed Wild and Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 5268 Tennessee, United States
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Philip L. Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research Center 6101 California, United States
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Scotts Bluff National Monument V 3185 Nebraska, United States
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
South Wight Maritime 49082 England, United Kingdom
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Thursley, Ash, Pirbright and Chobham 12696 England, United Kingdom
Tonto National Monument V 1123 Arizona, United States
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada


Abacarus hystrix (cereal rust mite)[6]
Agriotes lineatus (lined click beetle)[6]
Agriotes obscurus <Unverified Name>[6]
Agriotes sputator <Unverified Name>[6]
Agromyza albipennis[6]
Agromyza ambigua[6]
Agromyza intermittens[6]
Agromyza mobilis[6]
Agromyza nigrella[6]
Agromyza nigrociliata[6]
Agromyza rondensis[6]
Anas acuta (Northern Pintail)[7]
Anas americana (American Wigeon)[8]
Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard)[8]
Anoecia vagans[6]
Anoecia willcocksi[6]
Anser albifrons (Greater White-fronted Goose)[8]
Anser indicus (Bar-headed Goose)[8]
Anthomyza collini[8]
Anthus rubescens (Buff-bellied Pipit)[8]
Apamea anceps (Large Nutmeg)[6]
Apamea sordens[6]
Athous haemorrhoidalis <Unverified Name>[6]
Bibio ferruginatus[6]
Bibio hortulanus <Unverified Name>[6]
Bibio johannis[6]
Brachineura squamigera[6]
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)[8]
Bryobia praetiosa (clover mite)[6]
Cacatua galerita (Sulphur-crested Cockatoo)[8]
Calamospiza melanocorys (Lark Bunting)[8]
Calcarius lapponicus (Lapland Longspur)[8]
Calcarius pictus (Smith's Longspur)[8]
Callipepla californica (Californian Quail)[8]
Camarota curvipennis[6]
Capitophorus archangelskii afghani[6]
Caradrina clavipalpis <Unverified Name>[6]
Cephus pygmeus <Unverified Name>[6]
Cerodontha denticornis[6]
Cerodontha incisa[6]
Cerodontha lateralis <Unverified Name>[6]
Chirothrips manicatus (Cocksfoot thrip)[8]
Chlorops pumilionis (Gout fly)[6]
Chrysolophus pictus (Golden Pheasant)[9]
Columbina passerina (Common Ground-Dove)[8]
Contarinia tritici[6]
Corvus frugilegus (Rook)[10]
Coturnix pectoralis (Stubble Quail)[9]
Creontiades dilutus[8]
Crepidodera ferruginea <Unverified Name>[6]
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)[8]
Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan)[8]
Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)[8]
Delia coarctata[6]
Delia florilega (bean seed maggot)[6]
Delia platura (seedcorn maggot)[6]
Dendrocygna autumnalis (Black-bellied Whistling-Duck)[8]
Embernagra platensis (Pampa Finch)[11]
Eriococcus diaboli (Mount Diablo eriococcin)[12]
Eriococcus glyceriae (grass felt scale)[12]
Euptoieta claudia (Variegated fritillary)[8]
Exaeretopus tritici[12]
Fonscolombia amnicola <Unverified Name>[12]
Fonscolombia tomlinii <Unverified Name>[12]
Formicococcus lindingeri <Unverified Name>[12]
Geomyza tripunctata[6]
Graphania mutans (Grey-brown Cutworm)[13]
Haplodiplosis marginata[6]
Helophorus nubilis <Unverified Name>[6]
Hybolasioptera cerealis <Unverified Name>[6]
Hybolasioptera fasciata[6]
Hydraecia micacea (potato stem worm)[6]
Hydrellia tritici (Lawn fly)[13]
Ixoreus naevius (Varied Thrush)[8]
Javesella pellucida[6]
Laingia psammae[6]
Leipoa ocellata (Malleefowl)[8]
Leptopterna dolabrata (meadow plant bug)[6]
Lepus californicus (Black-tailed Jackrabbit)[8]
Lepus townsendii (White-tailed Jackrabbit)[14]
Limothrips cerealium (Grain thrip)[8]
Limothrips denticornis[8]
Luperina testacea (Flounced Rustic)[6]
Lygus rugulipennis[6]
Macrosiphum rosae rosae[6]
Mayetiola destructor (hessian fly)[6]
Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker)[8]
Meromyza saltatrix (Wheat Stem Maggot Fly)[6]
Mesapamea secalis (Common Rustic)[6]
Mesoligia literosa[6]
Mesopolobus graminum[6]
Metopolophium festucae[6]
Micrococcus silvestrii[12]
Micrococcus similis[12]
Muellerianella fairmairei[6]
Mythimna separata (Northern armyworm)[13]
Myzus ascalonicus (Shallot aphid)[6]
Nezara viridula (Southern green stink bug)[8]
Nysius huttoni[13]
Opomyza florum (Wheat fly)[6]
Opomyza germinationis[6]
Oria musculosa[6]
Oscinella frit (fruit fly)[6]
Oscinella pusilla[6]
Paracletus cimiciformis cimiciformis[6]
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)[8]
Patagioenas fasciata (Band-tailed Pigeon)[8]
Peliococcus turanicus (malicious mealybug)[12]
Persectania aversa[13]
Petrobia latens[6]
Phenacoccus evelinae (Evelyna's mealybug)[12]
Phenacoccus graminicola (ryegrass mealybug)[12]
Phenacoccus hordei (barley mealybug)[12]
Phenacoccus interruptus (Green's mealybug)[12]
Phenacoccus tergrigorianae[12]
Phorbia fumigata[6]
Phyllotreta vittula <Unverified Name>[6]
Phytomyza nigra[6]
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)[8]
Plectrophenax nivalis (Snow Bunting)[8]
Porphyrophora jashenkoi <Unverified Name>[12]
Pseudonapomyza atra[6]
Psylliodes luteola <Unverified Name>[6]
Rhizoglyphus echinopus[6]
Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae (apple grain aphid)[6]
Rhopalosiphum padi (Oat aphid)[6]
Rhynchophanes mccownii (McCown's Longspur)[8]
Sipha elegans[6]
Siteroptes cerealium <Unverified Name>[6]
Sitodiplosis mosellana (wheat midge)[6]
Sitotroga cerealella (Angoumois grain moth)[6]
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)[8]
Taiwanaphis niuginii[6]
Tibetococcus triticola[12]
Trionymus aberrans <Unverified Name>[12]
Trionymus ascripticius[12]
Trionymus utahensis (Utah grass mealybug)[12]
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)[8]
Zabrus tenebrioides[6]


Parasitized by 
Anguina tritici (Ear-cockle nematode)[15]
Basiria graminophila <Unverified Name>[15]
Blumeria graminis[8]
Ditylenchus dipsaci (Bud and stem nematode)[15]
Filenchus exiguus <Unverified Name>[15]
Filenchus micoletzkyi <Unverified Name>[15]
Helicotylenchus dihystera <Unverified Name>[15]
Paratylenchus peperpotti <Unverified Name>[15]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault


Caribbean; North America; Oceania;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000)
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
5Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
6Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
10CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE DIET OF IRANIAN BIRDS, Abolghasem Khaleghizadeh, Mohammad E. Sehhatisabet, Екологія, Беркут 15, Вип. 1-2. 2006. pp. 145-150
11Summer feeding ecology of Great Pampa-finches, Embernagra platensis at Laguna de Guaminí, Buenos Aires, Argentina, LAURA M. FERMAN and DIEGO MONTALTI, Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências (2010) 82(3): 663-669
12Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
13New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
14Lepus townsendii, Burton K. Lim, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 288, pp. 1-6 (1987)
15Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access