Plantae > Tracheophyta > Liliopsida > Poales > Poaceae > Zea > Zea mays

Zea mays (corn)

Synonyms: Mays americana; Mays zea; Mayzea cerealis; Thalysia mays; Zea segetalis

Wikipedia Abstract

Maize (/ˈmeɪz/ MAYZ; Zea mays subsp. mays, from Spanish: maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a large grain plant first domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The six major types of corn are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, popcorn, flour corn, and sweet corn. The leafy stalk of the plant produces separate pollen and ovuliferous inflorescences or ears, which are fruits, yielding kernels (often erroneously called seeds). Maize kernels are often used in cooking as a starch.
View Wikipedia Record: Zea mays



Height [2]  6.6 feet (2 m)
Screening - Summer [1]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [1]  Porous
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 10 Low Temperature: 30 F° (-1.1 C°) → 40 F° (4.4 C°)
Light Preference [3]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [3]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [3]  Rich
Soil Moisture [3]  Mostly Dry
Water Use [1]  High
Flower Color [1]  Yellow
Foliage Color [1]  Dark Green
Fruit Color [1]  Yellow
Fruit Conspicuous [1]  Yes
Bloom Period [1]  Early Summer
Drought Tolerance [1]  Low
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [1]  None
Flower Type [2]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [1]  90 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [1]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [1]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [1]  Summer
Growth Form [1]  Single Stem
Growth Period [1]  Summer
Growth Rate [1]  Rapid
Leaf Type [1]  Deciduous
Lifespan [2]  Annual
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Propagation [1]  Seed
Root Depth [1]  8 inches (20 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [1]  Slow
Seed Vigor [1]  High
Seeds Per [1]  1134 / lb (2500 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [1]  Erect
Structure [4]  Grass
Usage [2]  A glue is made from the starch in the seed; This starch is also used in cosmetics and the manufacture of glucose; A semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed; It has many industrial uses, in the manufacture of linoleum, paints, varnishes, soaps etc; The corn spathes are used in the production of paper, straw hats and small articles such as little baskets; A fibre obtained from the stems and seed husks is used for making paper; They are harvested in late summer after the seed has been harvested, they are cut into usable pieces and soaked in clear water for 24 hours. They are then cooked for 2 hours in soda ash and then beaten in a ball mill for 1
Vegetative Spread Rate [1]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Zea mays

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Archipelago de Colon Biosphere Reserve 34336011 Galapagos Islands, Ecuador  
Avon Gorge Woodlands 376 England, United Kingdom
Big Cypress National Preserve V 732120 Florida, United States
Burnham Beeches 946 England, United Kingdom  
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve VI 921676 Ecuador  
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Lundy 7573 England, United Kingdom  
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States


Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird)[5]
Agriotes lineatus (lined click beetle)[6]
Agriotes obscurus <Unverified Name>[6]
Agriotes sputator <Unverified Name>[6]
Agrotis ipsilon (black cutworm)[5]
Agrotis segetum (Turnip Moth)[5]
Agrypnus variabilis <Unverified Name>[7]
Alopochen aegyptiaca (Egyptian Goose)[5]
Alternaria infectoria[5]
Amazona oratrix (Yellow-headed Parrot)[8]
Amsacta lactinea[5]
Amsacta moorei[5]
Anagrapha falcifera (celery looper)[5]
Anaphothrips obscurus[5]
Anas americana (American Wigeon)[5]
Anas discors (Blue-winged Teal)[5]
Anser albifrons (Greater White-fronted Goose)[5]
Anseranas semipalmata (Magpie-Goose)[5]
Anthus rubescens (Buff-bellied Pipit)[5]
Apamea sordens[5]
Aphelocoma californica (Western Scrub-Jay)[5]
Aphis fabae (Bean aphid)[6]
Athous haemorrhoidalis <Unverified Name>[6]
Automeris io (Io moth)[5]
Aythya collaris (Ring-necked Duck)[5]
Blissus leucopterus (Chinch bug)[5]
Borbo borbonica (Borbo Skipper)[5]
Branta canadensis (Canada Goose)[5]
Bugeranus carunculatus (wattled crane)[5]
Cadra cautella[5]
Cairina moschata (Muscovy Duck)[5]
Calcarius lapponicus (Lapland Longspur)[5]
Callipepla californica (Californian Quail)[5]
Camnula pellucida (Clear-winged Grasshopper)[5]
Canis mesomelas (Black-backed Jackal)[5]
Capitophorus archangelskii afghani[6]
Cerococcus indicus (yellow cotton scale)[9]
Cerotoma trifurcata (Bean leaf beetle)[5]
Certhia americana (Brown Creeper)[5]
Chen caerulescens (Snow Goose)[5]
Chilo agamemnon[5]
Chilo suppressalis (Striped riceborer)[5]
Chilo zacconius[5]
Clarias ngamensis (Blunttooth catfish)[5]
Cnephasia asseclana (Flax Tortrix Moth)[6]
Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker)[5]
Columba livia (Rock Pigeon)[5]
Conoderus exsul[7]
Cossonus quadrimacula[5]
Cryptophlebia leucotreta[5]
Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan)[5]
Cynthia cardui[5]
Delia florilega (bean seed maggot)[6]
Delia platura (seedcorn maggot)[6]
Dendrocygna autumnalis (Black-bellied Whistling-Duck)[5]
Diabrotica barberi[5]
Diabrotica virgifera (Western corn rootworm)[6]
Diatraea saccharalis (Sugarcane Borer)[5]
Dictyotus caenosus[5]
Dilophus febrilis (Fever Fly)[6]
Diplophlyctis intestina[5]
Dysmicoccus boninsis (citrophilus mealybug)[9]
Dysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)[9]
Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (annona mealybug)[9]
Dysmicoccus trispinosus[9]
Eoreuma loftini[5]
Eriophyes tulipae <Unverified Name>[6]
Estigmene acrea (saltmarsh caterpillar)[5]
Euphagus carolinus (Rusty Blackbird)[5]
Euphagus cyanocephalus (Brewer's Blackbird)[5]
Euptoieta claudia (Variegated fritillary)[5]
Frankliniella schultzei (Tomato thrip)[10]
Frankliniella williamsi[10]
Geraeus senilis[5]
Glischrochilus hortensis <Unverified Name>[6]
Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm)[6]
Helicoverpa zea (bollworm)[5]
Hemileuca oliviae[5]
Heterococcus nigeriensis[9]
Hippotion celerio (Grapevine hawk moth)[6]
Hydraecia micacea (potato stem worm)[5]
Hymenia recurvalis <Unverified Name>[6]
Hypera punctata (clover leaf weevil)[5]
Icerya aegyptiaca[9]
Lamprotornis purpureus (Purple Starling)[11]
Leptodictya tabida (sugarcane lace bug)[12]
Lerema accius (clouded skipper)[5]
Lerodea eufala (rice leaffolder)[5]
Loxostege sticticalis[5]
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)[9]
Macrosiphum euphorbiellum (Potato aphid)[6]
Maladera castanea (Asiatic garden beetle)[5]
Mamestra brassicae (Cabbage Moth)[6]
Margarodes salisburiensis[9]
Melanerpes carolinus (Red-bellied Woodpecker)[5]
Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpecker)[5]
Melanerpes formicivorus (Acorn Woodpecker)[5]
Melanerpes lewis (Lewis's Woodpecker)[5]
Melanerythrus biguttatus[5]
Melanitis leda (Evening brown butterfly)[5]
Melanoplus femurrubrum (Red-legged Grasshopper)[5]
Melanotus punctolineatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)[5]
Melozone crissalis (California Towhee)[5]
Metopolophium dirhodum (Rose grain aphid)[6]
Metopolophium festucae[6]
Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird)[5]
Mythimna separata (Northern armyworm)[7]
Myzus ascalonicus (Shallot aphid)[6]
Nephelodes minians (bronzed cutworm)[5]
Nezara viridula (Southern green stink bug)[5]
Nyctelius nyctelius[5]
Oscinella frit (fruit fly)[6]
Oscinella pusilla[6]
Ostrinia furnacalis[5]
Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer)[5]
Oulema melanopus (Cereal leaf beetle)[5]
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)[9]
Parnara guttatus[5]
Parnara naso (African Straight)[5]
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)[5]
Patanga succincta[5]
Pelopidas conjuncta (Conjoined Swift)[5]
Pelopidas mathias (Dark Small-branded Swift)[5]
Perichares philetes[5]
Peridroma saucia (variegated cutworm)[5]
Phasianus colchicus (Ring-necked Pheasant)[5]
Phthorimaea operculella (Potato tuberworm)[5]
Phyllotreta undulata[5]
Phyllotreta vittula <Unverified Name>[6]
Phytomyza nigra[6]
Picoides pubescens (Downy Woodpecker)[5]
Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker)[5]
Pionus maximiliani (Scaly-headed Parrot)[13]
Pipilo maculatus (Spotted Towhee)[5]
Planococcus minor (Pacific mealybug)[9]
Plectrophenax nivalis (Snow Bunting)[5]
Plectropterus gambensis (Spur-winged Goose)[5]
Pleuroptya ruralis (Mother of Pearl Moth)[5]
Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle)[5]
Pseudaletia unipuncta (armyworm)[5]
Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi (banana mealybug)[9]
Pseudococcus sorghiellus (trochanter mealybug)[9]
Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (cottony grass scale)[9]
Pyrrharctia isabella (banded woollybear)[5]
Quiscalus major (Boat-tailed Grackle)[5]
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)[5]
Remaudiereana nigriceps[5]
Rhopalosiphum maidis (Corn aphid)[6]
Rhopalosiphum padi (Oat aphid)[6]
Ruspolia nitidula (Large Conehead)[5]
Scaptomyza pallida[6]
Schizaphis graminum (Greenbug)[5]
Scopula emissaria[14]
Sesamia calamistis[5]
Sesamia cretica[5]
Sesamia inferens[5]
Sesamia nonagrioides[5]
Simyra henrici[5]
Sipha glyceriae[6]
Sitobion avenae (English grain aphid)[5]
Sitobion avenae avenae[6]
Sitophilus oryzae (Rice weevil)[5]
Sitotroga cerealella (Angoumois grain moth)[6]
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)[5]
Sogatella furcifera[5]
Spilococcus halli (Viktorin grass mealybug)[9]
Spilosoma virginica (yellow woollybear)[5]
Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm)[5]
Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm)[5]
Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm)[5]
Spodoptera littoralis (African Cotton Leafworm)[6]
Spodoptera mauritia (lawn armyworm)[5]
Spodoptera ornithogalli (yellowstripe armyworm)[5]
Streptopelia senegalensis (Laughing Dove)[5]
Strymon melinus (cotton square borer)[5]
Sturnella neglecta (Western Meadowlark)[5]
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)[5]
Threskiornis aethiopicus (Sacred Ibis)[5]
Tipula paludosa (European crane fly)[5]
Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper)[5]
Trionymus agrestis[9]
Trionymus internodii[9]
Trionymus radicicola[9]
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)[5]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[5]
Vrydagha lepesmei[9]
Zabrus tenebrioides[6]
Zenaida asiatica (White-winged Dove)[5]
Zenonia zeno (Orange-spotted Skipper)[5]
Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Sparrow)[5]


Pollinated by 
Andrena carlini (Mining bee)[5]
Anthemurgus passiflorae (passionflower bee)[5]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[15]
Astata bicolor[5]
Euptoieta claudia (Variegated fritillary)[5]
Macropis steironematis[5]
Musca domestica (house fly)[5]
Reichertella pulicaria[5]
Spallanzania hesperidarum[5]
Triepeolus cressonii[5]
Typocerus lugubris[5]


Parasitized by 
Criconema mutabile <Unverified Name>[14]
Filenchus exiguus <Unverified Name>[14]
Filenchus filiformis <Unverified Name>[14]
Helicotylenchus dihystera <Unverified Name>[14]
Helicotylenchus multicinctus[14]
Paratylenchus mutabilis <Unverified Name>[14]
Puccinia sorghi[5]
Striga hermonthica (purple witchweed)[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault


Caribbean; North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
4Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
7New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
8Yellow-headed Amazon, BirdLife International (1992) Threatened Birds of the Americas. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.
9Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
10Species of Frankliniella Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from the Asian-Pacific Area, Chin-Ling Wang, Feng-Chyi Lin, Yi-Chung Chiu, and Hsien-Tzung Shih, Zoological Studies 49(6): 824-838 (2010)
11The Crop and Gizzard Food Contents of Purple Glossy Starling (Lamprotornis purpureus) in Jere and Konduga Local Government Areas of Borno State, Nigeria, S.D. YUSUFU AND Z.M. BELLO, Int. J. Agri. Biol., Vol. 6, No. 2, 2004, p. 270-271
12Leptodictya tabida (Herrich-Schaeffer) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Tingidae), Ru Nguyen, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, and David G. Hall, U.S. Sugar Corporation, July 1998
13Diet of the Scaly-headed Parrot (Pionus maximiliani) in a Semideciduous Forest in Southeastern Brazil, Mauro Galetti, BIOTROPICA 25(4): 419-425 1993
14Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
15Robertson, C. Flowers and insects lists of visitors of four hundred and fifty three flowers. 1929. The Science Press Printing Company Lancaster, PA.
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access