Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Ericales > Ericaceae > Vaccinium > Vaccinium vitis-idaea

Vaccinium vitis-idaea (lingonberry)

Wikipedia Abstract

Vaccinium vitis-idaea (lingonberry, partridgeberry, or cowberry) is a short evergreen shrub in the heath family that bears edible fruit, native to boreal forest and Arctic tundra throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Eurasia to North America. Lingonberries are picked in the wild and used to accompany a variety of dishes in Northern Baltoscandia. Commercial cultivation is undertaken in the U.S. Pacific Northwest.
View Wikipedia Record: Vaccinium vitis-idaea



Height [4]  10 inches (0.25 m)
Width [4]  39 inches (1 m)
Allergen Potential [1]  Low
Hardiness Zone Minimum [3]  USDA Zone: 0 Low Temperature: -65 F° (-53.9 C°) → -60 F° (-51.1 C°)
Light Preference [6]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [6]  Very Acid
Soil Fertility [6]  Infertile
Soil Moisture [6]  Moist
Bee Flower Color [2]  Blue-Green
Flower Color [3]  White
Foliage Color [3]  Green
Fruit Color [3]  Red
Flower Conspicuous [3]  Yes
Fruit Conspicuous [3]  Yes
Bloom Period [3]  Summer
Drought Tolerance [3]  Low
Edible [4]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [3]  Medium
Flower Type [4]  Hermaphrodite
Frost Free Days [3]  4 months
Fruit/Seed Begin [3]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [3]  Fall
Growth Form [3]  Rhizomatous
Growth Period [3]  Spring
Growth Rate [3]  Moderate
Leaf Type [4]  Evergreen
Lifespan [5]  Perennial
Pollinators [4]  Bees, Bats
Propagation [3]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed, Sprig
Root Depth [3]  12 inches (30 cm)
Seed Vigor [3]  Medium
Seeds Per [3]  9778 / lb (21557 / kg)
Structure [4]  Shrub
Usage [4]  A yellow dye is obtained from the leaves and stems; A purple dye is obtained from the fruit; Can be grown as a ground cover plant; It needs weeding for the first year or so; Plants are best spaced about 30cm apart each way;
Vegetative Spread Rate [3]  Moderate
View Plants For A Future Record : Vaccinium vitis-idaea

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Affluents du lac d'Eupen (Eupen; Raeren) 1232 Belgium  
Basegi Zapovednik Ia 93739 Perm, Russia
Bassin supérieur de l'Ourthe occidentale (Libramont-Chevigny) 3584 Belgium  
Beinn Dearg 34221 Scotland, United Kingdom
Beinn a`Ghlo 19978 Scotland, United Kingdom
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Ben Lawers 12423 Scotland, United Kingdom
Ben Wyvis 13313 Scotland, United Kingdom
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve Ib 2823882 Alaska, United States
Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd/ Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains 67265 Wales, United Kingdom
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Black Wood of Rannoch 2720 Scotland, United Kingdom
Bolshekhekhtsirsky Zapovednik Ia 112282 Khabarovsk, Russia
Border Mires, Kielder – Butterburn 29286 England, United Kingdom
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cairnsmore of Fleet, Silver Flowe, and Merrick Kells Biosphere Reserve 8794 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Camp militaire d'Elsenborn (Büllingen; Bütgenbach) 6324 Belgium  
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve V 619089 Jilin, China  
Drumochter Hills 23340 Scotland, United Kingdom
East Caithness Cliffs 1094 Scotland, United Kingdom
Elenydd 21274 Wales, United Kingdom
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Fagnes de Samrée et de Tailles (Houffalize; La Roche-en-Ardenne; Vielsalm) 2126 Belgium  
Fannich Hills 23816 Scotland, United Kingdom
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gates of the Arctic National Park Ib 184461 Alaska, United States
Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Ib 591068 Alaska, United States
Glen Coe 7329 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Hill of Towanreef 4660 Scotland, United Kingdom
Hoy 23474 Scotland, United Kingdom
Ingleborough Complex 14256 England, United Kingdom
Inverpolly 29349 Scotland, United Kingdom
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Ladder Hills 10769 Scotland, United Kingdom
Lake District High Fells 66717 England, United Kingdom
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Loch Maree Complex 38882 Scotland, United Kingdom
Loch Moidart and Loch Shiel Woods 4341 Scotland, United Kingdom
Magadansky Zapovednik 2332834 Russia  
Mardelles d'Arbrefontaine et vallons fangeux de Fosse (Lierneux; Trois-Ponts; Vielsalm) 533 Belgium  
Meall na Samhna 4653 Scotland, United Kingdom
Migneint–Arenig–Dduallt 49343 Wales, United Kingdom
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Moffat Hills 7146 Scotland, United Kingdom
Monadhliath 26369 Scotland, United Kingdom
Monte Generoso 586 Italy  
Moor House – Upper Teesdale 95867 England, United Kingdom
Moorfoot Hills 21001 Scotland, United Kingdom
Morecambe Bay Pavements 6449 England, United Kingdom
Morven and Mullachdubh 2265 Scotland, United Kingdom
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Noatak Biosphere Reserve 7500143 Alaska, United States  
North Harris 32450 Scotland, United Kingdom
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Plateau des Hautes-Fagnes (Baelen; Jalhay; Malmedy; Waimes) 9860 Belgium  
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Rannoch Moor 24965 Scotland, United Kingdom
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Roman Wall Loughs 1691 England, United Kingdom  
Rum 26775 Scotland, United Kingdom
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Simonside Hills 5146 England, United Kingdom  
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
St Kilda 62932 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Strathglass Complex 58277 Scotland, United Kingdom
Sunart 25320 Scotland, United Kingdom
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The Stiperstones and The Hollies 1486 England, United Kingdom  
Tingon 1407 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Val Caffaro 3059 Italy  
Val Grigna 7099 Italy  
Vallée de l'Amblève entre Montenau et Baugné (Amel; Malmedy; Waimes) 567 Belgium  
Vallée de la Lembrée et affluents (Aywaille; Durbuy; Ferrières; Stoumont) 1852 Belgium  
Vallées de la Warche et du Bayehon en aval du barrage de Robertville (Malmedy; Waimes) 1140 Belgium  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Vuntut National Park II 1076795 Yukon, Canada
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  



Acleris caledoniana[7]
Acleris lipsiana[7]
Acleris maccana (Marbled Dog’s-tooth Tortrix)[7]
Acrobasis vaccinii (Cranberry Fruitworm)[7]
Alces alces (moose)[8]
Anarta cordigera (small dark yellow underwing)[9]
Anarta melanopa (broad-bordered white underwing)[7]
Andrena lapponica[10]
Aphelia viburnana <Unverified Name>[10]
Aphis vaccinii[9]
Aporia crataegi (Black-veined White Butterfly)[7]
Atrococcus bejbienkoi (Bei-Bienko's mealybug)[11]
Atrococcus cracens (slender mealybug)[11]
Atrococcus pauperculus[11]
Aulacaspis ericacearum[11]
Bison bonasus (European bison)[12]
Bombus polaris (Bumblebee)[8]
Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse)[8]
Caliroa annulipes <Unverified Name>[9]
Calliteara pudibunda (Pale Tussock)[7]
Callophrys rubi (Green Hairstreak Butterfly)[9]
Capra caucasica cylindricornis (East Caucasian tur)[13]
Carsia sororiata (Manchester Treble-Bar)[7]
Chionaspis salicis (black willow bark louse)[9]
Cnephasia stephensiana (Grey Tortrix Moth)[7]
Coccomyces leptideus[14]
Coleophora glitzella[7]
Coleophora idaeella[7]
Coleophora vitisella[7]
Conistra vaccinii (Chestnut)[9]
Corvus corax (Northern Raven)[8]
Dasineura anglica[9]
Dasineura vitisidaea[9]
Elasmucha ferrugata[9]
Entephria caesiata (Grey Mountain Carpet)[7]
Eriococcus baldonensis[11]
Eriococcus uvaeursi (Linnaeus' felt scale)[11]
Eulithis populata (Northern Spinach Moth)[9]
Exobasidium vaccinii (Cowberry Redleaf)[10]
Falcipennis canadensis (Spruce Grouse)[14]
Fomoria weaveri[9]
Gibbera vaccinii[14]
Hyppa rectilinea (Saxon)[9]
Itame brunneata[9]
Lagopus lagopus (Willow Ptarmigan)[8]
Lagopus muta (Rock Ptarmigan)[14]
Lemmus sibiricus (brown lemming)[8]
Lepus arcticus (Arctic Hare)[14]
Lithomoia solidaginis (goldenrod brindle)[7]
Lophodermium melaleucum[14]
Macrothylacia rubi (Fox Moth)[7]
Martes americana (American Marten)[15]
Martes zibellina (Sable)[16]
Meliola ellisii[14]
Microtus xanthognathus (taiga vole)[17]
Monilinia urnula[14]
Myodes rufocanus (gray red-backed vole)[18]
Myodes rutilus (northern red-backed vole)[8]
Numenius tahitiensis (Bristle-thighed Curlew)[19]
Ochotona collaris (Collared Pika)[20]
Olethreutes mygindiana <Unverified Name>[9]
Peliococcus calluneti (heather mealybug)[11]
Phacidium vaccinii[14]
Phenacoccus vaccinii[11]
Phenacomys intermedius (western heather vole)[21]
Phyllonorycter junoniella[7]
Phyllostroma myrtilli (heather cushion scale)[11]
Physalospora vitis-idaeae[14]
Pinicola enucleator (Pine Grosbeak)[8]
Poecile hudsonicus (Boreal Chickadee)[8]
Prolita sexpunctella (Long-horned Flat-back)[9]
Psyche casta[7]
Pulvinaria floccifera (cottony camellia scale)[11]
Puto tubulifer[11]
Puto vaccinii[11]
Pyrgus malvae (Grizzled Skipper)[10]
Rhagoletis mendax (blueberry maggot)[22]
Rhopobota ustomaculana (Loch Rannoch Tortrix)[7]
Stictea mygindiana[7]
Ursus americanus (black bear)[15]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[8]
Wahlgreniella vaccinii[9]
Xestia alpicola <Unverified Name>[9]
Xestia baja (Dotted Clay)[9]
Zygaena exulans (Mountain Burnet)[7]


Pollinated by 
Andrena fucata[14]
Andrena haemorrhoa (Early Mining Bee)[14]
Andrena lapponica[14]
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[14]
Bombus bohemicus (Gipsy Cuckoo-bee)[14]
Bombus jonellus (Heath Humble-bee)[14]
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)[14]
Bombus pascuorum (Common Carder-bee)[14]
Bombus polaris (Bumblebee)[8]
Brassicogethes aeneus[14]
Callophrys rubi (Green Hairstreak Butterfly)[14]
Coenonympha pamphilus (Small Heath Butterfly)[14]
Dolichovespula sylvestris (Tree Wasp)[14]
Episyrphus balteatus (Marmelade Fly)[14]
Eupeodes corollae[14]
Formica fusca (silky ant)[14]
Lasioglossum fratellum[14]
Leucozona lucorum[14]
Melanostoma mellinum[14]
Rhingia campestris[14]
Sericomyia lappona[14]
Syritta pipiens (thick-legged hoverfly)[14]
Vespula rufa (Red Wasp)[14]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Oidiodendron maius[14]
Parasitized by 
Coccomyces leptideus[14]
Monilinia urnula[14]
Naohidemyces vaccinii[14]
Podosphaera myrtillina[14]
Pucciniastrum goeppertianum[14]
Xenomeris alpina[14]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault


Bassegi Zapovednik; North America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000)
2Arnold SEJ, Faruq S, Savolainen V, McOwan PW, Chittka L, 2010 FReD: The Floral Reflectance Database — A Web Portal for Analyses of Flower Colour. PLoS ONE 5(12): e14287.
3USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
4Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
5PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
6ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
7HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
8Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection
9Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
10Ecology of Commanster
11Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
12Food eaten by the free-living European bison in Białowieża Forest, Zofia GĘBCZYŃSKA, Marek GĘBCZYŃSKI and Ewa MARTYNOWICZ, Acta Theriologica 36 (3-4), 307-313, 1991.
13Capra cylindricornis, Paul J. Weinberg, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 695, pp. 1–9 (2002)
14Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
15Exploring the Denali Food Web, ParkWise, National Park Service
16Summer diet of the sable Martes zibellina in the Middle Yenisei taiga, Siberia, Marcin BRZEZIŃSKI, Acta Theriologica 39 (1): 103-107, 1994.
17Microtus xanthognathus, Chris J. Conroy and Joseph A. Cook, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 627, pp. 1-5 (1999)
18Analysing diet of small herbivores: the efficiency of DNA barcoding coupled with high-throughput pyrosequencing for deciphering the composition of complex plant mixtures, Eeva M Soininen, Alice Valentini, Eric Coissac, Christian Miquel, Ludovic Gielly, Christian Brochmann, Anne K Brysting, Jørn H Sønstebø, Rolf A Ims, Nigel G Yoccoz and Pierre Taberlet, Frontiers in Zoology 2009, 6:16
19del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
20Ochotona collaris, Stephen O. MacDonald and Clyde Jones, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 281, pp. 1-4 (1987)
21Phenacomys intermedius, James A. McAllister and Robert S. Hoffman, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 305, pp. 1-8 (1988)
22Rhagoletis mendax Curran (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae), G.J. Steck, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, and J.A. Payne, USDA-ARS, Southeastern Fruit and Nut Research Laboratory, July 1998
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access