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Ficus benghalensis (Indian banyan)

Synonyms: Ficus banyana; Ficus benghalensis var. krishnae; Ficus chauvieri; Ficus cotoneifolia; Ficus crassinervia; Ficus indica; Ficus krishnae; Ficus lasiophylla; Ficus umbrifera; Ficus umbrosa; Perula benghalensis; Urostigma bengalense

Wikipedia Abstract

Ficus benghalensis, with the common name Indian banyan and वट वृक्ष in Hindi, is a tree which is native to the Indian Subcontinent. Specimens in India are among the largest trees in the world by canopy coverage.
View Wikipedia Record: Ficus benghalensis

Attributes

Height [1]  63 feet (19.1 m)
Width [1]  60 feet (18.3 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  None
Allergen Potential [1]  Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-High
Shade Percentage [1]  91 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 11 Low Temperature: 40 F° (4.4 C°) → 50 F° (10 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 11 Low Temperature: 40 F° (4.4 C°) → 50 F° (10 C°)
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Leaf Type [2]  Evergreen
Lifespan [3]  Perennial
Specific Gravity [4]  0.494
Structure [2]  Tree

Emblem of

Bangladesh
India
Madhya Pradesh

Predators

Acridotheres fuscus (Jungle Myna)[5]
Acridotheres ginginianus (Bank Myna)[5]
Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)[5]
Andaspis hawaiiensis (Hawaiian scale)[6]
Anthracoceros coronatus (Malabar Pied Hornbill)[5]
Aonidiella aurantii (California red scale)[6]
Aonidiella orientalis (Oriental Scale)[6]
Asota caricae[7]
Asota ficus[7]
Asota sericea[7]
Asterococcus ramakrishnai[6]
Asterodiaspis pustulans <Unverified Name>[8]
Attatha regalis[7]
Axis axis (chital)[5]
Boselaphus tragocamelus (nilgai)[5]
Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus (Indian wax scale)[6]
Ceroplastes rusci (barnacle wax scale)[6]
Cerostegia rusci <Unverified Name>[8]
Coccus longulus (long brown scale)[6]
Coccus ramakrishnai[6]
Copromorpha myrmecias[7]
Coracina novaehollandiae (Black-faced Cuckooshrike)[5]
Corvus macrorhynchos (Large-billed Crow)[5]
Corvus splendens (House Crow)[5]
Cosmococcus erythrinae[6]
Cuculus varius (common hawk-cuckoo)[5]
Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)[5]
Cyrestis thyodamas (Butterfly)[7]
Dendrocitta vagabunda (Rufous Treepie)[5]
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)[5]
Euploea core (Oleander butterfly)[7]
Ferrisia virgata (grey mealybug)[6]
Gracupica contra (Pied Myna)[5]
Gymnaspis affinis[6]
Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)[6]
Hoolock hoolock hoolock (hoolock gibbon)[5]
Icerya aegyptiaca[6]
Ischnaspis longirostris (black line scale)[6]
Lecanodiaspis africana[6]
Lopholeucaspis japonica (Japanese maple scale)[6]
Lymantria serva[7]
Lymire edwardsi (Edwards Wasp Moth)[9]
Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey)[5]
Macaca radiata (bonnet macaque)[5]
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)[6]
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)[5]
Megalaima zeylanica (Brown-headed Barbet)[5]
Melanocercops phractopa[7]
Melursus ursinus (Sloth Bear)[10]
Meteoristis religiosa[7]
Monticola solitarius (Blue Rock Thrush)[5]
Nipaecoccus nipae (coconut mealybug)[6]
Nipaecoccus viridis (karoo thorn mealybug)[6]
Nola brachystria[7]
Ocyceros birostris (Indian Grey Hornbill)[5]
Ocyceros griseus (Malabar Grey Hornbill)[5]
Opogona xanthocrita[7]
Oriolus oriolus (Eurasian Golden Oriole)[5]
Oriolus xanthornus (Black-hooded Oriole)[5]
Parasaissetia nigra (nigra scale)[8]
Parlatoreopsis chinensis (Chinese obscure scale)[6]
Parlatoria crypta (mango white scale)[6]
Pastor roseus (Rosy Starling)[5]
Perina nuda[7]
Phenacoccus madeirensis (Mexican mealybug)[6]
Phenacoccus solenopsis (solenopsis mealybug)[6]
Philiris innotata <Unverified Name>[11]
Phycodes radiata[7]
Pinnaspis aspidistrae <Unverified Name>[6]
Pinnaspis minima[6]
Plecopterodes pulcra[7]
Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (gingging scale)[6]
Psimada quadripennis[7]
Psittacula krameri (Rose-ringed Parakeet)[5]
Psittacula longicauda (Long-tailed Parakeet)[5]
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)[5]
Pteropus seychellensis (Seychelles flying fox)[5]
Pulvinaria psidii (green shield scale)[6]
Pycnonotus aurigaster (Sooty-headed Bulbul)[5]
Pycnonotus cafer (Red-vented Bulbul)[5]
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered Bulbul)[5]
Pycnonotus luteolus (White-browed Bulbul)[5]
Pycnonotus xantholaemus (Yellow-throated Bulbul)[5]
Rousettus leschenaultii (Leschenault's rousette)[12]
Scalmatica albofasciella[7]
Semnopithecus entellus (Hanuman langur)[5]
Sturnia malabarica (Chestnut-tailed Starling)[5]
Sturnia pagodarum (Brahminy Starling)[5]
Sus scrofa (wild boar)[5]
Tinthia cymbalistis[7]
Tockus nasutus (African Grey Hornbill)[5]
Trachypithecus pileatus (capped leaf monkey)[13]
Treron phoenicopterus (Yellow-footed Green Pigeon)[5]
Trilocha varians[7]
Turdoides striata (Bengal jungle babbler)[5]
Viverricula indica (Small Indian Civet)[5]
Vulpes bengalensis (Bengal Fox)[14]

Distribution

North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
3USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
4Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository.
5"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
6Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
7HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
8Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
9Edwards Wasp Moth, Lymire edwardsii (Grote) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Arctiidae: Ctenuchinae), Dale H. Habeck and Frank W. Mead, University of Florida, December 2000. Revised October 2010
10Feeding ecology of sloth bears in a disturbed area in central India, H.S. Bargali, Naim Akhtar,and N.P.S. Chauhan, Ursus 15(2):212-217 (2004)
11Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
12Sudhakaran, M.R. & P.S. Doss (2012). Food and foraging preferences of three pteropo- did bats in southern India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(1): 2295-2303
13Feeding Ecology of Trachypithecus pileatus in India, G. S. Solanki & Awadhesh Kumar & B. K. Sharma, Int J Primatol (2008) 29:173–182
148.2 Indian fox, Vulpes bengalensis, A.J.T. Johnsingh and Y.V. Jhala, Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 430 pp.
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