Plantae > Tracheophyta > Liliopsida > Poales > Poaceae > Elymus > Elymus repens
 

Elymus repens (quackgrass; creeping quackgrass)

Synonyms: Agropyron junceum var. repens; Agropyron repens; Braconotia officinarum; Elytrigia repens; Frumentum repens; Triticum infestum; Triticum repens; Zeia repens

Wikipedia Abstract

Elymus repens, commonly known as couch grass, is a very common perennial species of grass native to most of Europe, Asia, the Arctic biome, and northwest Africa. It has been brought into other mild northern climates for forage or erosion control, but is often considered a weed. Other names include common couch, twitch, quick grass, quitch grass (also just quitch), dog grass, quackgrass, scutch grass, and witchgrass.
View Wikipedia Record: Elymus repens

Infraspecies

Attributes

Height [2]  4.1 feet (1.25 m)
Screening - Summer [1]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [1]  Porous
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 2 Low Temperature: -50 F° (-45.6 C°) → -40 F° (-40 C°)
Light Preference [3]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [3]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [3]  Rich
Soil Moisture [3]  Moist
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Flower Color [1]  Yellow
Foliage Color [1]  Green
Fruit Color [1]  Brown
Bloom Period [1]  Mid Spring
Drought Tolerance [1]  Low
Fire Tolerance [1]  High
Frost Free Days [1]  90 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [1]  Low
Fruit/Seed Begin [1]  Spring
Fruit/Seed End [1]  Summer
Growth Form [1]  Rhizomatous
Growth Period [1]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [1]  Rapid
Leaf Type [1]  Deciduous
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Propagation [1]  Seed, Sprig
Regrowth Rate [1]  Moderate
Root Depth [1]  14 inches (36 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [1]  Moderate
Seed Vigor [1]  Medium
Seeds Per [1]  110000 / lb (242508 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [1]  Erect
Structure [4]  Grass
Vegetative Spread Rate [1]  Rapid

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Badlands National Park II 178535 South Dakota, United States
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Basegi Zapovednik Ia 93739 Perm, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd/ Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains 67265 Wales, United Kingdom
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Bolshekhekhtsirsky Zapovednik Ia 112282 Khabarovsk, Russia
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Central Plains Biosphere Reserve 15345 United States  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
Coram Biosphere Reserve 7460 Montana, United States
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Cwm Doethie – Mynydd Mallaen 10186 Wales, United Kingdom
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Essex Estuaries 114016 England, United Kingdom
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument V 4349 Idaho, United States
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Ilmensky Zapovednik Ia 84955 Chelyabinsk, Russia
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kedrovaya Pad Zapovednik Ia 44224 Primorsky Krai , Russia
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lago Puelo National Park II 47607 Chubut, Argentina
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Magadansky Zapovednik 2332834 Russia  
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Moor House – Upper Teesdale 95867 England, United Kingdom
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Mt. Field National Park II 39289 Tasmania, Australia
Nahuel Huapi National Park II 759703 Argentina  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
River Spey 14158 Scotland, United Kingdom
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
South Wight Maritime 49082 England, United Kingdom
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Thursley, Ash, Pirbright and Chobham 12696 England, United Kingdom
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Ussuriysky Zapovednik Ia 99910 Primorsky Krai , Russia
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  

Ecosystems

Predators

Abacarus hystrix (cereal rust mite)[5]
Aceria cornuta <Unverified Name>[5]
Aculodes dubius <Unverified Name>[5]
Anagnota bicolor[6]
Anoecia vagans[5]
Anoecia willcocksi[5]
Anser albifrons (Greater White-fronted Goose)[6]
Anthomyza collini[6]
Anthomyza elbergi[6]
Antonina purpurea (false-brome scale)[7]
Apamea anceps (Large Nutmeg)[5]
Apamea monoglypha (Dark Arches)[5]
Apamea remissa (Dusky Brocade)[5]
Apamea scolopacina (Slender Brindle)[5]
Apamea sordens[5]
Apamea unanimis (Small Clouded Brindle)[5]
Aphantopus hyperantus (Ringlet Butterfly)[5]
Atrococcus saxatilis[7]
Berytinus hirticornis[5]
Calameuta filiformis <Unverified Name>[5]
Camarota curvipennis[5]
Capitophorus archangelskii afghani[5]
Capsus ater[5]
Cerodontha calosoma[5]
Cerodontha denticornis[5]
Cerodontha flavocingulata[5]
Cerodontha lateralis <Unverified Name>[5]
Cerodontha muscina[5]
Cerodontha pygmaea[5]
Cerodontha superciliosa[5]
Cetema elongata <Unverified Name>[5]
Chilo agamemnon[6]
Chlorops pumilionis (Gout fly)[5]
Chorizococcus subalpinus[7]
Chryseococcus arecae[7]
Contarinia tritici[5]
Costelytra zealandica[8]
Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan)[6]
Dasineura alopecuri[5]
Delia coarctata[5]
Dicraeus fennicus[5]
Diuraphis frequens[5]
Dysmicoccus walkeri (Walker's mealybug)[7]
Erebia aethiops (Scotch Argus)[5]
Eremobia ochroleuca (Dusky Sallow)[5]
Eriococcus agropyri (Borchsenius' felt scale)[7]
Eriococcus glyceriae (grass felt scale)[7]
Eriococcus greeni (Newstead's felt scale)[7]
Eriococcus placidus (smooth felt scale)[7]
Eriococcus zernae[7]
Eriopeltis festucae (cottony grass scale)[7]
Eriophyes tulipae <Unverified Name>[5]
Euthrix potatoria (Drinker Moth)[9]
Exaeretopus agropyri[7]
Fonscolombia amnicola <Unverified Name>[7]
Fonscolombia tomlinii <Unverified Name>[7]
Forda marginata[5]
Haplodiplosis marginata[5]
Hesperia comma (Silver-spotted Skipper)[5]
Heterococcus agropyri[7]
Heterococcus nudus (naked grass-mealybug)[7]
Heterococcus tritici (wheat mealybug)[7]
Hipparchia semele (Grayling)[5]
Hybolasioptera cerealis <Unverified Name>[5]
Hybolasioptera fasciata[5]
Laingia psammae[5]
Lasiommata megera <Unverified Name>[9]
Lasioptera calamagrostidis[5]
Lecanopsis formicarum[7]
Lecanopsis subterranea (Borchsenius' grass scale)[7]
Lecanopsis turcica[7]
Leptopterna dolabrata (meadow plant bug)[5]
Leucochlaena oditis[5]
Longicoccus psammophilus (sand-loving mealybug)[7]
Luperina testacea (Flounced Rustic)[5]
Maniola jurtina (Meadow Brown Butterfly)[9]
Marmota flaviventris (yellow-bellied marmot)[10]
Mayetiola destructor (hessian fly)[5]
Melanargia galathea (Marbled White)[5]
Melanargia lachesis (Iberian Marbled White)[6]
Meromyza saltatrix (Wheat Stem Maggot Fly)[5]
Mesapamea secalis (Common Rustic)[5]
Microtus pinetorum (woodland vole)[11]
Mythimna albipuncta <Unverified Name>[5]
Mythimna conigera <Unverified Name>[5]
Mythimna pallens <Unverified Name>[9]
Mythimna unipuncta <Unverified Name>[5]
Noctua orbona (Lunar Yellow Underwing)[5]
Notostira elongata[5]
Ochlodes venata[5]
Oligia strigilis (Marbled Minor)[5]
Oscinella pusilla[5]
Paracoccus biporus[7]
Pararge aegeria (Speckled Wood Butterfly)[9]
Peliococcus balteatus (girdled mealybug)[7]
Phenacoccus evelinae (Evelyna's mealybug)[7]
Phenacoccus hordei (barley mealybug)[7]
Philudoria potatoria <Unverified Name>[5]
Phytomyza nigra[5]
Plectrophenax nivalis (Snow Bunting)[6]
Poaspis jahandiezi (Balachowsky's soft scale)[7]
Polites mystic (long dash skipper)[12]
Pyronia tithonus (Gatekeeper)[5]
Sipha elegans[5]
Sipha glyceriae[5]
Sitobion avenae avenae[5]
Sphaerolecanium prunastri (globose scale)[7]
Stiphrosoma sabulosum[6]
Taiwanaphis niuginii[5]
Tetramesa hyalipennis[5]
Tetramesa linearis[5]
Thymelicus acteon (Lulworth Skipper)[5]
Thymelicus lineola (European skipper)[5]
Trionymus aberrans <Unverified Name>[7]
Trionymus hamberdi (Hamberd's mealybug)[7]
Trionymus levis (aberrant mealybug)[7]
Trionymus radicum (thrift root mealybug)[7]
Trionymus tangi <Unverified Name>[7]
Trionymus tomlini (guernsey grass mealybug)[7]
Urocitellus columbianus (Columbian ground squirrel)[13]

Providers

Parasite of 
Claviceps purpurea (Ergot)[6]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Blumeria graminis[6]
Tranzscheliella hypodytes[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Distribution

Bassegi Zapovednik; Europe to Pakistan; North America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
2PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
3ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
4Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
5Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
8New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
9Ecology of Commanster
10Predicting seasonal diet in the yellow-bellied marmot: success and failure for the linear programming model, G.P. Edwards, Oecologia (1997) 112:320-330
11Microtus pinetorum, Michael J. Smolen, Mammalian Species No. 147, pp. 1-7 (1981)
12Butterflies of Canada, Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility
13Individual variation in the ability of Columbian ground squirrels to select an optimal diet, MARK E. RITCHIE, Evolutionary Ecology, 1988, 2, 232-252
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access