Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Chiroptera > Pteropodidae > Pteropus > Pteropus tonganus

Pteropus tonganus (Pacific flying fox; insular flying fox)

Wikipedia Abstract

The insular flying fox or Pacific flying fox (Pteropus tonganus) is a species of flying fox in the family Pteropodidae. It is geographically widespread, the most widespread flying fox in the Pacific: it is found in American Samoa, the Cook Islands, Fiji, New Caledonia, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Samoa (where it is called pe'a fanua, pe'a fai and taulaga), the Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu.
View Wikipedia Record: Pteropus tonganus


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 7.15
EDGE Score: 2.1


Adult Weight [2]  1.25 lbs (565 g)
Diet [3]  Frugivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  100 %
Forages - Arboreal [3]  100 %
Arboreal [1]  Yes
Litter Size [2]  1
Litters / Year [2]  1
Nocturnal [1]  Yes


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Cook Islands tropical moist forests New Zealand Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Fiji tropical dry forests Fiji Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests  
Fiji tropical moist forests Fiji Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
New Britain-New Ireland lowland rain forests Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
New Caledonia dry forests France Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
New Caledonia rain forests France Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Samoan tropical moist forests Samoa, United States Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Solomon Islands rain forests Solomon Islands Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Tongan tropical moist forests New Zealand, Tonga Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Vanuatu rain forests Vanuatu Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
National Park of American Samoa II   American Samoa, United States    

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
East Melanesian Islands Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu No
New Caledonia New Caledonia No
Polynesia-Micronesia Fiji, Micronesia, Polynesia, Samoa, Tonga, United States No

Prey / Diet

Alphitonia zizyphoides[4]
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)[2]
Artocarpus heterophylla[2]
Barringtonia asiatica (sea putat)[4]
Calophyllum inophyllum (Alexandrian laurel)[4]
Carica papaya (papaya)[2]
Ceiba pentandra (kapoktree)[2]
Cocos nucifera (coconut palm)[2]
Diospyros samoensis[2]
Dysoxylum mollissimum subsp. molle[4]
Dysoxylum rufum[4]
Elaeocarpus rarotongensis[2]
Erythrina variegata (Indian Coral Tree)[4]
Fagraea berteroana (Perfume Flower Tree)[2]
Ficus copiosa[2]
Ficus melinocarpa[5]
Ficus prolixa (fig)[5]
Inocarpus fagifer (Tahitian Chestnut)[2]
Mangifera indica (mango)[2]
Melanococca tomentosa[4]
Myristica hypargyraea[2]
Neisosperma oppositifolium[2]
Pandanus tectorius (Tahitian screwpine)[2]
Persea americana (avocado)[2]
Planchonella tahitensis[2]
Planchonella torricellensis[4]
Pometia pinnata (taun tree)[2]
Solanum lycopersicum (Currant Tomato)[2]
Terminalia catappa (india almond)[2]
Cananga odorata (ilang-ilang)[2]
Cerbera manghas (Sea Mango)[2]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)1
Aplonis atrifusca (Samoan Starling)1
Aplonis grandis (Brown-winged Starling)1
Aplonis metallica (Metallic Starling)1
Aplonis opaca (Micronesian starling)1
Cacatua ophthalmica (Blue-eyed Cockatoo)1
Casuarius casuarius (Southern Cassowary)2
Coracina lineata (Barred Cuckooshrike)1
Dobsonia minor (lesser naked-backed fruit bat)1
Dobsonia moluccensis (Moluccan naked-backed fruit bat)2
Ducula aurorae (Polynesian Imperial Pigeon)1
Ducula galeata (Marquesan Imperial Pigeon)2
Ducula pacifica (Pacific Imperial Pigeon)8
Echymipera kalubu (Common Echymipera)1
Echymipera rufescens (Long-nosed Echymipera)1
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)3
Eunymphicus cornutus (Horned Parakeet)1
Foulehaio carunculatus (Wattled Honeyeater)1
Gibbovalva quadrifasciata1
Macroglossus minimus (lesser long-tongued fruit bat)1
Macropygia amboinensis (Brown Cuckoo-Dove)1
Macropygia mackinlayi (Spot-breasted Cuckoo-Dove)1
Mino dumontii (Yellow-faced Myna)1
Nyctimene albiventer (common tube-nosed fruit bat)1
Paranyctimene raptor (unstriped tube-nosed bat)1
Peroryctes raffrayana (Raffray's Bandicoot)1
Phalanger orientalis (Northern Common Cuscus)1
Phalanger vestitus (Stein's Cuscus)1
Phigys solitarius (Collared Lory)1
Prosopeia tabuensis (Maroon Shining Parrot)4
Pseudococcus symoni1
Pteropus conspicillatus (spectacled flying fox)1
Pteropus hypomelanus (variable flying fox)3
Pteropus mariannus (Marianas flying fox)3
Pteropus poliocephalus (gray-headed flying fox)1
Ptilinopus chalcurus (Makatea Fruit Dove)2
Ptilinopus dupetithouarsii (White-capped Fruit Dove)1
Ptilinopus greyii (Red-bellied Fruit Dove)2
Ptilinopus perousii (Many-colored Fruit Dove)1
Ptilinopus porphyraceus (Crimson-crowned Fruit Dove)1
Ptilinopus purpuratus (Grey-green Fruit Dove)1
Ptilinopus superbus (Superb Fruit Dove)1
Rastrococcus truncatispinus (Rastrococcus mealybug)1
Rhyticeros plicatus (Papuan Hornbill)1
Rousettus amplexicaudatus (Geoffroy's rousette)1
Spilocuscus maculatus (Common Spotted Cuscus)1
Syconycteris australis (southern blossom bat)1
Trichoglossus haematodus (Coconut Lorikeet)1
Vini australis (Blue-crowned Lory)4
Vini kuhlii (Kuhl's Lorikeet)4
Vini stepheni (Stephen's Lorikeet)1
Vini ultramarina (Ultramarine Lorikeet)4
Zosterops griseotinctus (Islet White-eye)1


Falco peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon)[6]
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)[2]


Guettarda speciosa (beach gardenia)[2]
Homalium acuminatum[2]
Cananga odorata (ilang-ilang)[2]
Cerbera manghas (Sea Mango)[2]

Range Map

Australia; Oceania;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Pteropus tonganus, Carrie A. Miller and Don E. Wilson, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 552, pp. 1-6 (1997)
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Roosting Behavior of Colonial and Solitary Flying Foxes in American Samoa (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), Anne P. Brooke, Christopher Solek, Ailao Tualaulelei, Biotropica 32(2): 338-350, 2000
5"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access