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Axis axis (chital; axis deer)

Wikipedia Abstract

The chital or cheetal (Axis axis), also known as chital deer, spotted deer or axis deer, is a deer which commonly inhabits wooded regions of India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and in small numbers in Pakistan.
View Wikipedia Record: Axis axis

Invasive Species

Axis axis is an introduced species of deer from India. It has historically been introduced to various locations because of its desirable qualities as a game species. When herd populations become too large they impact local vegetation and increase erosion. They also forage on a variety of vegetation removing food sources for many native species and domestic cattle. They also carry transmissible diseases and pose an increased threat to human safety in and around highway corridors.
View ISSG Record: Axis axis

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
3
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
21
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 7.2
EDGE Score: 2.1

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  79.37 lbs (36.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  6.93 lbs (3.14 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  2 years 1 month
Male Maturity [1]  2 years 6 months
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Gestation [1]  7 months 16 days
Litter Size [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  21 years
Weaning [1]  4 months 2 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
East Deccan dry-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Goadavari-Krishna mangroves India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Malabar Coast moist forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Orissa semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka lowland rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka montane rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundarbans mangroves Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bandhavgarh National Park II 89210 Madhya Pradesh, India  
Corbett National Park II 141853 Uttaranchal, India
Gomardah Sanctuary IV 72320 Chhattishgarh, India  
Haleakala National Park II   Hawaii, United States
Hawaiian Islands Biosphere Reserve 245981 Hawaii, United States  
Indravati Tiger Reserve   Chhattishgarh, India      
Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park   Hawaii, United States
Kanha Tiger Reserve National Park II 223971 Madhya Pradesh, India
Kudremukh National Park II 202772 Karnataka, India  
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Nahuel Huapi National Park II 759703 Argentina  
Narsinghgarh Sanctuary IV   Madhya Pradesh, India  
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve 1364022 India  
Palamau Tiger Reserve National Park II 329056 Bihar, India
Point Reyes National Seashore II 27068 California, United States
Rajaji National Park II 196637 Uttaranchal, India  
Rajiv Gandhi (Nagarahole) National Park II 155253 Karnataka, India  
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Sanjay Gandhi National Park II 439343 Maharashtra, India
Simlipal Tiger Reserve National Park II 103465 Orissa, India  
Sunderban National Park 261613 India  
Tamor Pingla Sanctuary IV 148780 Chhattishgarh, India  
Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary IV 51099 Maharashtra, India  
Wilpattu National Park II 320298 Sri Lanka  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Capparis rotundifolia[3]
Ficus benghalensis (Indian banyan)[4]
Ficus minahassae (clustertree)[4]
Ficus religiosa (peepul tree)[4]
Ficus thonningii (Chinese banyan)[4]
Ficus tsjahela[4]
Helicteres isora[3]
Phyllanthus emblica (emblic)[5]
Terminalia bellerica[5]
Vachellia nilotica (Gum Arabic Tree)[3]
Ziziphus mauritiana (Indian jujube)[3]
Ziziphus nummularia (jujube)[3]
Ziziphus xylopyra[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acridotheres cristatellus (Crested Myna)2
Acridotheres ginginianus (Bank Myna)2
Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)3
Acritillas indica (Yellow-browed Bulbul)2
Anthracoceros coronatus (Malabar Pied Hornbill)3
Axis porcinus (hog deer)2
Bos frontalis gaurus (gaur)2
Boselaphus tragocamelus (nilgai)6
Buceros bicornis (Great Hornbill)3
Chloropsis cochinchinensis (Blue-winged Leafbird)2
Coracina novaehollandiae (Black-faced Cuckooshrike)2
Corvus macrorhynchos (Large-billed Crow)3
Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)5
Dendrocitta vagabunda (Rufous Treepie)2
Dicaeum agile (Thick-billed Flowerpecker)2
Elephas maximus (Asiatic Elephant)2
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)3
Hoolock hoolock hoolock (hoolock gibbon)3
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)3
Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey)3
Macaca radiata (bonnet macaque)3
Macaca silenus (liontail macaque)2
Macroglossus minimus (lesser long-tongued fruit bat)2
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)4
Megalaima rubricapillus (Crimson-fronted Barbet)2
Megalaima viridis (White-cheeked Barbet)3
Megalaima zeylanica (Brown-headed Barbet)4
Melursus ursinus (Sloth Bear)5
Monticola solitarius (Blue Rock Thrush)2
Muntiacus muntjak (Indian muntjac)2
Ocyceros birostris (Indian Grey Hornbill)2
Ocyceros griseus (Malabar Grey Hornbill)2
Oriolus oriolus (Eurasian Golden Oriole)3
Oriolus xanthornus (Black-hooded Oriole)2
Pastor roseus (Rosy Starling)2
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)2
Psittacula columboides (Blue-winged Parakeet)2
Psittacula cyanocephala (Plum-headed Parakeet)2
Psittacula krameri (Rose-ringed Parakeet)2
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)4
Pycnonotus cafer (Red-vented Bulbul)4
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered Bulbul)4
Pycnonotus luteolus (White-browed Bulbul)3
Pygathrix nemaeus (Douc langur)2
Ratufa indica (Indian giant squirrel)2
Rhinoceros unicornis (Indian rhinoceros)2
Rousettus leschenaultii (Leschenault's rousette)2
Rusa unicolor (sambar)3
Semnopithecus entellus (Hanuman langur)4
Sus scrofa (wild boar)2
Trachypithecus pileatus (capped leaf monkey)2
Treron phoenicopterus (Yellow-footed Green Pigeon)2
Turdoides striata (Bengal jungle babbler)3
Vulpes bengalensis (Bengal Fox)2

Predators

Canis aureus (Golden Jackal)[6]
Cuon alpinus (Dhole)[7]
Felis chaus (Jungle Cat)[6]

Providers

Parasite of 
Nematodirus spathiger[8]
Trichostrongylus colubriformis[8]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Amblyomma americanum (Lone Star tick)[9]
Anaplasma marginale[9]
Calicophoron calicophorum[10]
Capillaria bovis[10]
Cooperia punctata[10]
Cotylophoron cotylophorum <Unverified Name>[10]
Cotylophoron indicum[9]
Cysticercus tenuicollis <Unverified Name>[10]
Dermacentor albipictus (Elk tick)[9]
Dermacentor auratus[9]
Dictyocaulus viviparus[9]
Echinococcus granulosus[10]
Explanatum bathycotyle <Unverified Name>[10]
Explanatum explanatum <Unverified Name>[10]
Fischoederius elongatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Gastrothylax crumenifer <Unverified Name>[10]
Gongylonema pulchrum[9]
Haemonchus contortus (red stomach worm)[10]
Ixodes scapularis (Black legged tick)[9]
Lipoptena mazamae (Neotropical deer ked)[9]
Metastrongylus apri[9]
Moniezia benedeni <Unverified Name>[10]
Muellerius capillaris (hair lungworm)[10]
Nematodirus spathiger[11]
Oesophagostomum dentatum[9]
Oesophagostomum radiatum[9]
Oesophagostomum venulosum[10]
Orthocoelium scoliocoelium <Unverified Name>[10]
Paramphistomum cervi[10]
Paramphistomum epiclitum <Unverified Name>[10]
Setaria cervi <Unverified Name>[10]
Stephanurus dentatus[9]
Stilesia globipunctata <Unverified Name>[10]
Trichostrongylus axei[10]
Trichostrongylus colubriformis[11]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)
Al Ain Zoo
Al Bustan Zoological Center
Artis Zooaxis
Aurangabad Municipal Zoo
Badoca Safari Park
Bannerghatta Biological Park
Beale Park
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Buffalo Zoological Gardens
CERZA Centre d'Etude Rech Zool Augeron
Chiangmai Zoological Garden
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dept. of National Zoological Gardensaxis
Disney's Animal Kingdom
Domaine Zoologique de Pescherayaxis
Dr. Shivarama Karanth Pilikula Biol.Pk
Dusit (Bangkok) Zoological Park
Emerald Safari Resort
Fossil Rim Wildlife Center
Guadalajara Zoo
Guldborgsund Zoo & Botanical Gardenaxis
Howletts Wild Animal Parkaxis
Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Izmir Zoo / Izmir Dogal Yasam Parki
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zooaxis
Johannesburg Zoological Gardens
Kamala Nehru Prani Sanghrahalay Zoo
Khao Kheow Open Zoo
Kittenberger Zoo
Knowsley Safari Park
Knuthenborg Safaripark
Kolmardens Djurpark AB
 axis
Lee Richardson Zoo
Lichtenburg Game Breeding Center
Longleat Safari Park
Maktoum Wildlife Centreaxis
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunnaxis
Mesker Park Zoo
Monarto Zoological Park
Montgomery Zoo
Nakhon Ratchasima Zool. Park
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africa
National Trust for Nature Conservation
Oasys Parque del Desierto de Tabernas
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniu
Pana'ewa Rainforest Zoo & Gardens
Parc de la Haute Touche (MNHN)
 axis
Parc Zoologic de Barcelona
Parco Zoo Punta Verdeaxis
Patronato del Parque Zoologico de Leon
Planete Sauvage
Port Lympne Wild Animal Parkaxis
Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park
Rajkot Municipal Corporation Zoo
Safaripark Beekse Bergen
 axis
San Diego Wild Animal Park
San Diego Zoo
Sanjay Gandhi Biological Park
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH
Silver Springs Park
Singapore Zoological Gardens
Skaerup Mini Zoo
Songkhla Zoo
Tallinn Zoo
Taronga Zoo
Terra Natura S.A.
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbH
Virginia Safari Park & Preserv Ctr,Inc
Werribee Open Range Zoo
West Midland Safari & Leisure Park Ltd
Western Plains Zoo
 axis
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park
Wildlife World Zoo
Woburn Safari Park
Wroclaw Zoo, LLCaxis
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb
 axis
Zoo Krefeld GmbH
Zoo Negara Malaysia
Zoo of Acadiana
Zoo Parc de Beauval
 axis
Zoo Parc Overloonaxis
Zoo Taiping & Night Safariaxis
Zoo Zürich
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Gan
Zoologico Nacional La Aurora
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg
Zoologischer Garten Schmiding

Range Map

Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); North America; Oceania; South America; Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Food habits of ungulates in dry tropical forests of Gir Lion Sanctuary, Gujarat, India, Jamal A. KHAN, Acta Theriologica 39 (2): 185-193,1994. 4"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572 5Frugivory of Phyllanthus emblica at Rajaji National Park, northwest India, SOUMYA PRASAD, RAVI CHELLAM, JAGDISH KRISHNASWAMY, S. P. GOYAL, CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 87, NO. 9, 10 NOVEMBER 2004 6Majumder, A., K. Sankar, Q. Qureshi & S. Basu (2011). Food habits and temporal activity patterns of the Golden Jackal Canis aureus and the Jungle Cat Felis chaus in Pench Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(11): 2221–2225 7Cuon alpinus, James A. Cohen, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 100, pp. 1-3 (1978) 8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 9Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2. 10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 11Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access