Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Bovidae > Ovis aries > Ovis aries orientalis

Ovis aries orientalis (mouflon; sheep (feral))

Synonyms: Ovis orientalis; Ovis orientalis typica

Wikipedia Abstract

The mouflon (Ovis orientalis orientalis group) is a subspecies group of the wild sheep (Ovis orientalis). Populations of O. orientalis can be partitioned into the mouflons (orientalis group) and the urials (vignei group). The mouflon is thought to be one of the two ancestors for all modern domestic sheep breeds.
View Wikipedia Record: Ovis aries orientalis

Invasive Species

Ovis aries (sheep) are an ungulate mammal believed to have originated in Europe. While humans have domesticated the majority of sheep, feral populations exist. These populations are causing impacts on the native diversity of plant species, especially on islands. The impact their grazing has on vegetation is known to cause declines in rare and endangered bird species and other native ungulate species.
View ISSG Record: Ovis aries orientalis

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Not determined do to incomplete vulnerability data.
ED Score: 5.31


Adult Weight [1]  242.51 lbs (110.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  5.22 lbs (2.37 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  1 year 6 months
Male Maturity [1]  2 years 6 months
Gestation [1]  4 months 26 days
Litter Size [1]  2
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  23 years
Weaning [1]  6 months 2 days

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Abetina Reale, Alta Val Dolo 8510 Italy  
Ajar Valley Wildlife Sanctuary Wildlife Reserve IV 158064 Afghanistan  
Bosques Petrificados Monumental Natural National Monument III 151218 Santa Cruz, Argentina  
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary   California, United States
Channel Islands National Park II 139010 California, United States
Coorong National Park II 121235 South Australia, Australia
Corno alle Scale 11322 Italy  
Foresta di Campigna, Foresta la Lama, Monte Falco 9983 Italy  
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 177278 Hawaii, United States
Hawaiian Islands Biosphere Reserve 245981 Hawaii, United States  
Kalaupapa National Historic Site V 9746 Hawaii, United States  
Kosciuszko National Park II 1705480 New South Wales, Australia
Lanín National Park II 536819 Neuquen, Argentina
Monte Ortobene 5315 Italy  
Monte Prado 1527 Italy  
Monte Ventasso 7188 Italy  
Nahuel Huapi National Park II 759703 Argentina  
Nuristan Reserve National Park 1419914 Afghanistan  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Reserve Srebarna Managed Reserve IV 2294 Bulgaria  
Riverland Biosphere Reserve Ia 1490891 South Australia, Australia
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
St. Kilda National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom    
Ustyurtskiy Reserve State Nature Reserve Ia 567745 Kazakhstan  
Val d'Ozola, Monte Cusna 12041 Italy  

Emblem of

New Zealand


Caracara plancus (Southern Crested Caracara)[2]
Geranoaetus melanoleucus (Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle)[3]
Gypaetus barbatus (Bearded Vulture)[4]
Uncia uncia (Snow leopard)[5]


Parasitized by 
Amphipsylla qinghaiensis[6]
Aonchotheca musimon <Unverified Name>[7]
Ascaris lumbricoides <Unverified Name>[7]
Avitellina centripunctata[7]
Bunostomum trigonocephalum[7]
Calicophoron daubneyi <Unverified Name>[7]
Calicophoron microbothrium <Unverified Name>[7]
Capillaria bilobata <Unverified Name>[7]
Capillaria bovis[7]
Carmyerius spatiosus <Unverified Name>[7]
Chabertia ovina <Unverified Name>[7]
Coenurus cerebralis[7]
Cooperia curticei <Unverified Name>[7]
Cooperia oncophora <Unverified Name>[7]
Cooperia pectinata[7]
Cotylophoron bareilliense <Unverified Name>[7]
Cotylophoron cotylophorum <Unverified Name>[7]
Coxiella burnetii[8]
Cysticercus ovis <Unverified Name>[7]
Cysticercus tenuicollis <Unverified Name>[7]
Cystocaulus nigrescens <Unverified Name>[7]
Cystocaulus ocreatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Dictyocaulus filaria[7]
Dictyocaulus viviparus[7]
Dorcadia dorcadia[6]
Dorcadia ioffi[6]
Dorcadia qinghaiensis[6]
Echinococcus granulosus[7]
Fasciola hepatica (common liver fluke)[7]
Fischoederius elongatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)[8]
Gastrothylax crumenifer <Unverified Name>[7]
Haemonchus contortus (red stomach worm)[7]
Haemonchus placei <Unverified Name>[7]
Liorchis hiberniae <Unverified Name>[7]
Liorchis scotiae <Unverified Name>[7]
Marshallagia marshalli <Unverified Name>[7]
Marshallagia occidentalis <Unverified Name>[7]
Moniezia autumnalis <Unverified Name>[7]
Moniezia benedeni <Unverified Name>[7]
Muellerius capillaris (hair lungworm)[7]
Mycobacterium avium (Mycobacterium avium)[8]
Nematodirus abnormalis[7]
Nematodirus battus[7]
Nematodirus europaeus <Unverified Name>[7]
Nematodirus filicollis[7]
Nematodirus helvetianus[7]
Nematodirus rupicaprae <Unverified Name>[7]
Nematodirus spathiger[7]
Neostrongylus linearis <Unverified Name>[7]
Oesophagostomum columbianum[7]
Oesophagostomum venulosum[7]
Orthocoelium dinniki <Unverified Name>[7]
Ostertagia arctica <Unverified Name>[7]
Ostertagia bakuriani <Unverified Name>[7]
Ostertagia circumcincta[7]
Ostertagia gruehneri <Unverified Name>[7]
Ostertagia kolchida[8]
Ostertagia lasensis <Unverified Name>[7]
Ostertagia leptospicularis[7]
Ostertagia lyrata[7]
Ostertagia ostertagi[7]
Ostertagia trifurcata[7]
Paramphistomum cauliorchis <Unverified Name>[7]
Protostrongylus kochi <Unverified Name>[7]
Protostrongylus muraschkinzewi <Unverified Name>[7]
Protostrongylus rufescens[7]
Salmonella enterica[8]
Schistosoma bovis <Unverified Name>[7]
Schistosoma haematobium <Unverified Name>[7]
Schistosoma japonicum <Unverified Name>[7]
Setaria labiatopapillosa <Unverified Name>[7]
Skrjabinagia buriatica <Unverified Name>[7]
Skrjabinema ovis[7]
Spiculopteragia asymmetrica[7]
Spiculopteragia quadrispiculata <Unverified Name>[7]
Spiculopteragia spiculoptera[7]
Stilesia globipunctata <Unverified Name>[7]
Stilesia vittata <Unverified Name>[7]
Strongyloides papillosus[7]
Taenia hydatigena <Unverified Name>[7]
Taenia multiceps <Unverified Name>[7]
Taenia ovis <Unverified Name>[7]
Teladorsagia circumcincta <Unverified Name>[7]
Teladorsagia davtiani <Unverified Name>[7]
Teladorsagia pinnata <Unverified Name>[7]
Teladorsagia trifurcata <Unverified Name>[7]
Thysaniezia giardi <Unverified Name>[7]
Thysanosoma actinioides <Unverified Name>[7]
Trichocephalus globulosa <Unverified Name>[7]
Trichocephalus indicus <Unverified Name>[7]
Trichocephalus infundibulus <Unverified Name>[7]
Trichostrongylus axei[7]
Trichostrongylus capricola[7]
Trichostrongylus colubriformis[7]
Trichostrongylus extenuatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Trichostrongylus probolurus <Unverified Name>[7]
Trichostrongylus vitrinus[7]
Trichuris capreoli <Unverified Name>[7]
Trichuris discolor[7]
Trichuris globulosa[7]
Trichuris lani <Unverified Name>[7]
Trichuris ovis[7]
Trichuris parvi <Unverified Name>[7]
Trichuris skrjabini <Unverified Name>[7]
Trichuris trichiura <Unverified Name>[7]
Tunga penetrans (Chigoe)[6]
Vermipsylla alakurt[6]
Vermipsylla yeae[6]
Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica)[8]
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Y. pseudotuberculosis)[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Adelaide Zooaries dorper
Africa Alive!aries cameroon_dwarf
 aries somali
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)musimon
Akron Zoological Parkaries
 aries barbados_blackbelly
 aries karakul
Al Ain Zoolaristanica
Al-Wabra Wildlife Preservationlaristanica
Alabama Gulf Coast Zooaries barbados_blackbelly
 aries katahdin
Albuquerque Biological Parkaries navajo_churro
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstanbochariensis
Amarillo Zoo
America's Teaching Zoo
Apenheul Primate Parkaries fulani
 aries hampshire_down
Artis Zooaries
 aries cameroon_dwarf
 aries hampshire_down
Attica Zoological Park S.A.aries cameroon_dwarf
Audubon Zooaries gulf_coast_native
 aries st_croix
Badoca Safari Park
Banham Zoo Ltd.aries cameroon_dwarf
 aries mongolian
Beale Parkaries cameroon_dwarf
 aries ouessant
Bergen County Zoological Parkaries american_tunis
Binder Park Zooaries jacobs_four_horned
Binghamton Zoo at Ross Parkmusimon
Birmingham Nature Centre
 aries cameroon_dwarf
 aries icelandic
 aries jacobs_four_horned
 aries soay
Birmingham Zooaries barbados_blackbelly
 aries gulf_coast_native
Blaavand Zooaries cameroon
 aries ouessant
Blackpool Zooaries ouessant
Boras Djurpark Zoo
Bosphorus Zoo (Bogaziçi Hayvanat
BREC's Baton Rouge Zoo
 aries st_croix
Brent Lodge Park Animal Centre
Bronx Children's Zooaries domestic
 aries dorset_horn
 aries jacobs_four_horned
 aries suffolk
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Brookgreen Gardensaries tunisian_milk
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Gardenaries cameroon_dwarf
 aries tsigai
 aries west_african_dwarf
Bursa Zoo (Bursa Hayvanat Bahcesi)aries cameroon_dwarf
Buttonwood Park Zooaries leicester_longwool
Camperdown Wildlife Centrearies
 aries soay
Central Florida Zoological Park
Central Park Zooaries domestic
 aries southdown
Charles Paddock Zooaries jacobs_four_horned
Chattanooga Zoo at Warner Parkmusimon
Chessington World of Adventures, Ltd.aries
 aries domestic
Chicago Zoological Parkaries domestic
Children's Zoo at Celebration Square
 aries cheviot
Christianshede Zooaries gotland
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Gardenaries jacobs_four_horned
 aries southdown
Cleveland Metroparks Zooaries domestic
 aries southdown
Colchester Zoo
 aries cameroon_dwarf
 aries somali
 aries suffolk
 aries wensleydale
Columbus Zoo and Aquariumaries barbados_blackbelly
 aries jacobs_four_horned
 aries karakul
Connecticut's Beardsley Zooaries cotswold
Cosley Zooaries montadale
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardensaries ouessant
Dakota Zoomusimon
Dallas Zooaries southdown
Detroit Zoological Societyaries shetland
Dierenpark 'De Vleut' (Zoo Best)aries ouessant
Dierenpark Amersfoort
 aries blackhead_persian
 aries cameroon_dwarf
 aries schoonebeker
Disney's Animal Kingdomaries american_tunis
 aries florida_native
 aries gulf_coast_native
 aries katahdin
Domaine Zoologique de Pescheraymusimon
Drayton Manor Park Zooaries cameroon_dwarf
Dreamworld Pty Ltd
DSI Givskud Zoo
Dudley Zoological Gardensaries cameroon_dwarf
 aries domestic
 aries icelandic
 aries ouessant
 aries soay
El Paso Zooaries santa_cruz
Erie Zoological Gardensaries karakul
 aries rideau_arcott
 aries southdown
Faunia (Parque Biologico De Madrid,SA)
Flamingo Land LTDaries jacobs_four_horned
Folly Farm Leisure Ltdaries cameroon_dwarf
 aries somali
Forest Park Zoological Societyaries romney
Fort Wayne Children's Zooaries
Fossil Rim Wildlife Center
Fresno Chaffee Zooaries
 aries barbados_blackbelly
 aries jacobs_four_horned
 aries navajo_churro
GaiaPark, Kerkrade Zooaries mergelland
Granby Zoo / Zoo de Granbyaries
 aries dorper
Great Plains Zooaries jacobs_four_horned
Guadalajara Zoo
Guldborgsund Zoo & Botanical Garden
Hai Park Kiriat Motzkinaries
 aries cameroon_dwarf
 aries jacobs_four_horned
Happy Hollow Zooaries navajo_churro
Henry Vilas Zoo
Honolulu Zoo
Houston Zoo, Inc.
IAE - African Safari Wildlife Parkmusimon
Jackson Zoological Park
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Airesaries somali_arab
Joboland Brandesgardshaven
Johannesburg Zoological Gardensaries bapedi
 aries domestic
 aries nguni
John Ball Zoological Gardenaries katahdin
Jyllands Park Zooaries cameroon
Kaliningrad Zoobochariensis
Kansas City Zooaries debouillet
 aries karakul
 aries merino
 aries romney
 aries targhee
Kharkiv Zoo
Kishinev Zooparkmusimon
Knoxville Zoological Gardensaries cotswold
 aries tunisian_milk
Knuthenborg Safariparkaries
Kristiansand Dyrepark ASA
La Vallée des Singesaries somali
Lake Superior Zoological Gardensaries
Lee Richardson Zooaries karakul
Lehigh Valley Zoo
Leningrad Zoo - St. Petersburgbochariensis
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardensaries jacobs_four_horned
Lion Country Safari Inc - Floridamusimon
Little Rock Zoological Gardens
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardensaries rambouillet
Magnetic Hill Zoomusimon
Manor House Wildlife Parkaries cameroon
Maryland Zoo in Baltimorearies jacobs_four_horned
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunn
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquariumaries southdown
Menagerie du Jardin des Plantesarkal
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodzaries
 aries jacobs_four_horned
 aries polish_heath
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsawaries domestic
 aries polish_heath
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Wybrzeza
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny, Plockaries skudde
Mill Mountain Zooaries domestic
Minnesota Zoological Garden
Miskolc Zoo/Állatkert és Kultúrparkmusimon
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRL
Mulhouse Zooaries cameroon_dwarf
Municipal Independent Org. Roev Ruchei
Museum de Besanconaries cameroon
 aries ouessant
Nagyerdei Kultúrpark KHT.
Nashville Zoo at Grassmere
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africaarkal
Natural Science Center of Greensboro
Neunkircher Zoologischer Garten GmbHaries bentheim
 aries ouessant
NEW Zooaries
Newquay Zoo (Cornwall Animal World)aries ouessant
Niabi Zoo
Niedersächsische Landesforstenaries quessant
Noah's Ark Zoo Farmaries jacobs_four_horned
Nordens Arkbochariensis
Oakland Zoo
Oasys Parque del Desierto de Tabernasaries cameroon
Oatland Island Wildlife Center
Ogrod Zoobotaniczny Torunaries
 aries polish_heath
Ogrod Zoologiczny im. Stefana Mileraaries
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Opolu, Opole
 aries cameroon_dwarf
 aries jacobs_four_horned
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniuaries cameroon_dwarf
 aries ouessant
Oklahoma City Zoological Parkaries american_tunis
Olmense Zooaries
Opel-Zoo von Opel HessischeZoostiftungaries
Orange County Zoo
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.aries corriedale
Out of Africa Wildlife Park
Ouwehand Zoo
 aries ouessant
Paignton Zoo Environmental Parkaries
Paradise Park Wildlife Sanctuaryaries ouessant
Paradise Wildlife Parkaries
Parc Animalier de Sainte Croixmusimon
Parc de la Haute Touche (MNHN)musimon
Parc Zoologic de Barcelonaaries ripollesa
Parc Zoologique De Cleres (MNHN)
Parc Zoologique Fort Mardyckaries cameroon_dwarf
Parco Faunistico La Torbieramusimon
Park i Ogrod Zoologiczny w Krakowiearies
Patronato del Parque Zoologico de Leon
Permskii Zoologicheskii Sadmusimon
Phoenix Zoo
 aries barbados_blackbelly
 aries navajo_churro
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium
Planete Sauvage
Podkrusnohorsky Zoopark Chomutovarkal
Point Defiance Zoo & Aquariumaries southdown
Prospect Park Zooaries domestic
 aries southdown
Pueblo Zooaries american_jacob
 aries navajo_churro
Queens Zooaries domestic
 aries jacobs_four_horned
 aries leicester_longwool
 aries southdown
 aries suffolk
Reaseheath College Animal Centrearies cameroon_dwarf
Ree Park - Ebeltoft Safarimusimon
Riga Zooaries latvian_darkheaded
 aries romanov
Rodbaston Collegearies cameroon_dwarf
 aries herdwick
 aries ouessant
Roger Williams Park Zooaries santa_cruz
Rolling Hills Wildlife Adventurearies dorper
Rome Zoo-Fondazione Bioparco di Romaaries
Rosamond Gifford Zoo at Burnet Park
Saint Louis Zoological Park
Saitama Children's Zooaries corriedale
Salzburg Zoo Hellbrunnaries
San Diego Wild Animal Park
San Diego Zoo
San Francisco Zoological Gardens
Santa Ana Zooaries hog_island
 aries jacobs_four_horned
 aries navajo_churro
Santa Barbara Zoological Gardens
Sedgwick County Zooaries american_tunis
 aries jacobs_four_horned
 aries karakul
 aries navajo_churro
Sequoia Park Zooaries
 aries barbados_blackbelly
Shepreth Wildlife Parkaries shetland
 aries soay
Silesian Zoological Garden
 aries american_jacob
Silver Springs Park
Singapore Zoological Gardensmusimon
Skaerup Mini Zoomusimon
Skansen Foundation, Zool. Dept.aries
 aries gutefar
 aries leicester_longwool
Staten Island Zoo
Sunset Zooaries barbados_blackbelly
Szeged Zoo
Tallahassee Museum of History and
Tallinn Zooarkal
Tama Zoological Parkmusimon
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo
Taronga Zoo
Tautphaus Park Zoo
Terra Natura S.A.
Texas Zooaries
The Living Desert Zoo and Gardensaries jacobs_four_horned
The Philadelphia Zooaries dorset_down
The Tisch Family Zoological Gardens
Thoiry Zoological Parkaries somali
Thuringer Zoopark Erfurtaries heidschnucke
 aries ouessant
 aries zackel
Tiergarten Bernburgaries cameroon_dwarf
 aries zackel
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnbergaries cameroon_dwarf
 aries quessant
 aries roussillon_red
Tiergarten Heidelberg
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbHaries cameroon_dwarf
 aries carinthian
 aries gotland
 aries hissar
 aries mongolian
 aries skudde
 aries somali
Tierpark Dählhölzliaries spiegel
Tierpark Hagenbeck GmbHaries ouessant
Tilgate Nature Centrearies boreray
 aries southdown
Topeka Zoological Parkaries american_jacob
 aries dorset_horn
 aries navajo_churro
Toronto Zoomusimon
Trotter's World of Animalsaries cameroon_dwarf
 aries soay
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museum
 aries jacobs_four_horned
 aries katahdin
 aries southdown
Turtle Back Zooaries
 aries domestic
Ueno Zoological Gardensaries corriedale
Usti nad Labem Zoo
Utah's Hogle Zooaries navajo_churro
Utica Zooaries jacobs_four_horned
Valley Zoo & John Janzen Nature Center
 aries shetland
Virginia Zoological Parkaries hog_island
Wadi Al Safa Wildlife Centre
Washington Park Zoological Gardensaries barbados_blackbelly
 aries jacobs_four_horned
 aries navajo_churro
West Midland Safari & Leisure Park Ltdaries cameroon_dwarf
 aries somali
Western North Carolina Nature Centeraries cotswold
 aries dorset_horn
 aries icelandic
Westfalischer Zoologischer Gtn Munsteraries ouessant
Whipsnade Wild Animal Parkaries badger_face_welsh_torddu
 aries domestic
 aries suffolk
Wild Animal Park Mechelen Planckendaelaries soay
Woburn Safari Parkaries
 aries jacobs_four_horned
 aries soay
Woodland Park Zoological Gardensaries katahdin
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC
 aries cameroon_dwarf
 aries jacobs_four_horned
 aries polish_heath
 aries racka
 aries swiniarka
Xantus János Állatkert Kht.aries
Zivalski vrt Ljubljanaaries
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo Atlantaaries gulf_coast_native
Zoo Boisearies shropshire
Zoo de Doue-la-Fontainearies cameroon_dwarf
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternarioaries bornu
Zoo Decin - Pastyrska Stena
Zoo Dresden GmbHaries cameroon
 aries cameroon_dwarf
Zoo Dvur Kralove, a.s.
Zoo Hannover GmbHaries cameroon
 aries pomeranian_coarsewool
Zoo Melakamusimon
Zoo Negara Malaysia
Zoo New England, Franklin Park Zooaries hampshire_down
Zoo New England, Stone Zooaries hampshire_down
Zoo of Acadianaaries domestic
Zoo Sauvage de St-Félicien
Zoo Züricharies swiss_brownheaded_mutton
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Ganaries dorper
 aries jacobs_four_horned
 aries merino
Zoological Garden of Polish Faunaaries jacobs_four_horned
Zoological Society of Ireland-Dublinaries suffolk
 aries texel
Zoological Society of Londonaries oxford_down
Zoologicka zahrada Ostravaaries
 aries mongolian
Zoologicka Garden & Chateau Zlin-Lesnaaries somali
Zoologicka zahrada Bojnicearies
 aries racka
Zoologicka Zahrada Bratislava
Zoologicka Zahrada Jihlava
Zoologicka Zahrada Kosice
Zoologicka Zahrada Mesta Brna
 aries cameroon_dwarf
Zoologicka zahrada Olomoucmusimon
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzenaries heidschnucke
 aries skudde
 aries somali
 aries west_african_dwarf
Zoologico Nacional La Aurora
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbHaries cameroon_dwarf
 aries skudde
Zoologischer Garten Halle GmbHaries ouessant
 aries west_african_dwarf
 aries zackel
ZooWorld Zoological Botanical Conserv.


Europe & Northern Asia (excluding China); North America; Oceania; South America;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Food habits of the Crested Caracara (Caracara plancus) in the Andean Patagonia: the role of breeding constraints, A. Travaini, J. A. Donázar, O. Ceballos & F. Hiraldo, Journal of Arid Environments (2001) 48: 211–219
3Breeding Biology of a Grey Eagle-Buzzard Population in Patagonia, Fernando Hiraldo, José A. Donázar, Olga Ceballos, Alejandro Travaini, Javier Bustamante and Martín Funes, The Wilson Bulletin, Vol. 107, No. 4 (Dec 1995), pp. 675-685
4Assessing the diet of nestling Bearded Vultures: a comparison between direct observation methods, Antoni Margalida, Joan Bertran, and Jennifer Boudet, J. Field Ornithol. 76(1):40–45, 2005
5Uncia uncia, Helmet Hemmer, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 20, pp. 1-5 (1972)
6International Flea Database
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
8Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access