Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Artiodactyla > Bovidae > Boselaphus > Boselaphus tragocamelus

Boselaphus tragocamelus (nilgai)

Wikipedia Abstract

The nilgai or blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) (pronounced /ˈnil-ˌgī/) (literally meaning "blue cow") is the largest Asian antelope and is endemic to the Indian subcontinent. The sole member of the genus Boselaphus, the species was described and given its binomial name by German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas in 1766. The nilgai stands 1–1.5 metres (3.3–4.9 ft) at the shoulder; males weigh 109–288 kilograms (240–635 lb), and the lighter females 100–213 kilograms (220–470 lb). A sturdy thin-legged antelope, the nilgai is characterised by a sloping back, a deep neck with a white patch on the throat, a short crest of hair along the neck terminating in a tuft, and white facial spots. A column of pendant coarse hair, hangs from the dewlap ridge below the white patch. Sexual dimorphism is promi
View Wikipedia Record: Boselaphus tragocamelus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 13.68
EDGE Score: 2.69


Adult Weight [1]  396.83 lbs (180.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  12.95 lbs (5.88 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  2 years 2 months
Diet [2]  Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  20 %
Diet - Plants [2]  80 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  8 months 15 days
Litter Size [1]  2
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  22 years


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Goadavari-Krishna mangroves India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Himalayan subtropical pine forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Orissa semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Rann of Kutch seasonal salt marsh India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Thar desert India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Pakistan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bandhavgarh National Park II 89210 Madhya Pradesh, India  
Gandhi Sagar Sanctuary IV 223475 Madhya Pradesh, India  
Gomardah Sanctuary IV 72320 Chhattishgarh, India  
Indravati Tiger Reserve   Chhattishgarh, India      
Kanha Tiger Reserve National Park II 223971 Madhya Pradesh, India
Lal Suhanra National Park V 17972 Pakistan  
Narsinghgarh Sanctuary IV   Madhya Pradesh, India  
Palamau Tiger Reserve National Park II 329056 Bihar, India
Pong Lake Sanctuary IV 61391 Himachal Pradesh, India  
Rajaji National Park II 196637 Uttaranchal, India  
Sanjay Gandhi National Park II 439343 Maharashtra, India
Simlipal Tiger Reserve National Park II 103465 Orissa, India  
Tamor Pingla Sanctuary IV 148780 Chhattishgarh, India  
Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary IV 51099 Maharashtra, India  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No

Prey / Diet

Butea monosperma (Bastard Teak)[3]
Clerodendrum phlomidis (Arni)[4]
Cocculus hirsutus[4]
Crotalaria burhia[4]
Cynodon dactylon (manienie)[4]
Desmostachya bipinnata[4]
Eleocharis dulcis (Chinese water chestnut)[4]
Euphorbia hirta (Asthma Weed)[4]
Ficus benghalensis (Indian banyan)[5]
Ficus minahassae (clustertree)[5]
Ficus religiosa (peepul tree)[5]
Indigofera oblongifolia[4]
Morus alba (mulberry)[4]
Paspalum distichum (knotgrass)[4]
Prosopis juliflora (mesquite)[4]
Senegalia senegal (gum arabic)[4]
Sida rhombifolia (arrowleaf sida)[4]
Vachellia leucophloea (White Babul)[4]
Vachellia nilotica (Gum Arabic Tree)[4]
Vetiveria zizanoides[4]
Ziziphus mauritiana (Indian jujube)[3]
Ziziphus nummularia (jujube)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acridotheres cristatellus (Crested Myna)1
Acridotheres fuscus (Jungle Myna)1
Acridotheres ginginianus (Bank Myna)2
Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)3
Anthracoceros coronatus (Malabar Pied Hornbill)2
Axis axis (chital)6
Axis porcinus (hog deer)4
Baiomys taylori (northern pygmy mouse)1
Bos frontalis gaurus (gaur)2
Bubalus mindorensis (tamaraw)1
Buceros bicornis (Great Hornbill)1
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary)1
Canis aureus (Golden Jackal)1
Carpodacus rodochroa (Pink-browed Rosefinch)1
Chaetodipus hispidus (hispid pocket mouse)1
Chaetodipus penicillatus (desert pocket mouse)1
Cinnyris asiaticus (Purple sunbird)1
Coracina novaehollandiae (Black-faced Cuckooshrike)1
Corvus macrorhynchos (Large-billed Crow)2
Corvus splendens (House Crow)1
Cuculus varius (common hawk-cuckoo)1
Cynanthus latirostris (Broad-billed Hummingbird)1
Cynopterus brachyotis (lesser short-nosed fruit bat)1
Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)3
Dendrocitta formosae (Grey Treepie)1
Dendrocitta vagabunda (Rufous Treepie)2
Dicaeum agile (Thick-billed Flowerpecker)1
Dicaeum erythrorhynchos (Pale-billed Flowerpecker)1
Dicrurus macrocercus (Black Drongo)1
Dipodomys ordii (Ord's kangaroo rat)1
Elephas maximus (Asiatic Elephant)1
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)2
Francolinus pondicerianus (Grey Francolin)1
Galloperdix spadicea (Red Spurfowl)1
Gazella gazella (mountain gazelle)1
Geomys attwateri (Attwater's pocket gopher)1
Geomys breviceps (Baird's pocket gopher)1
Gracupica contra (Pied Myna)1
Hoolock hoolock hoolock (hoolock gibbon)3
Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)1
Hypsipetes leucocephalus (Black Bulbul)2
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)1
Lepus alleni (Antelope Jackrabbit)1
Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque)1
Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey)3
Macaca nigra (Celebes crested macaque)1
Macaca radiata (bonnet macaque)1
Macaca silenus (liontail macaque)1
Macroglossus minimus (lesser long-tongued fruit bat)1
Martes foina (Beech Marten)1
Mayetiola destructor (hessian fly)1
Megalaima asiatica (Blue-throated Barbet)1
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)2
Megalaima viridis (White-cheeked Barbet)2
Megalaima zeylanica (Brown-headed Barbet)3
Melursus ursinus (Sloth Bear)5
Monticola solitarius (Blue Rock Thrush)2
Muntiacus muntjak (Indian muntjac)1
Neotoma micropus (southern plains woodrat)1
Ocyceros birostris (Indian Grey Hornbill)2
Ocyceros gingalensis (Sri Lankan Grey Hornbill)1
Ocyceros griseus (Malabar Grey Hornbill)1
Oriolus oriolus (Eurasian Golden Oriole)2
Oriolus xanthornus (Black-hooded Oriole)1
Paradoxurus hermaphroditus (Asian Palm Civet)1
Pastor roseus (Rosy Starling)2
Pavo cristatus (Indian Peafowl)1
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)1
Psittacula krameri (Rose-ringed Parakeet)1
Pteropus alecto (black flying fox)1
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)3
Pycnonotus cafer (Red-vented Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus luteolus (White-browed Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus xantholaemus (Yellow-throated Bulbul)1
Pygathrix nemaeus (Douc langur)2
Ratufa indica (Indian giant squirrel)1
Rhinoceros unicornis (Indian rhinoceros)3
Rhyticeros narcondami (Narcondam Hornbill)1
Rhyticeros subruficollis (Plain-pouched Hornbill)1
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette)1
Rousettus leschenaultii (Leschenault's rousette)2
Rucervus duvaucelii (barasingha)2
Semnopithecus entellus (Hanuman langur)3
Semnopithecus vetulus (purple-faced leaf monkey)1
Sturnia malabarica (Chestnut-tailed Starling)1
Sturnia pagodarum (Brahminy Starling)1
Sus scrofa (wild boar)2
Sylvilagus audubonii (Desert Cottontail)1
Tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary)1
Tephrodornis pondicerianus (Common Woodshrike)1
Trachypithecus pileatus (capped leaf monkey)2
Treron phoenicopterus (Yellow-footed Green Pigeon)2
Turdoides striata (Bengal jungle babbler)2
Viverricula indica (Small Indian Civet)1
Vulpes bengalensis (Bengal Fox)2
Xerospermophilus tereticaudus (round-tailed ground squirrel)1
Zosterops palpebrosus (Oriental White-eye)1


Canis lupus pallipes (Indian grey wolf)[4]
Cuon alpinus (Dhole)[6]
Hyaena hyaena (Striped Hyena)[4]
Panthera pardus (Leopard)[4]
Panthera tigris tigris (Bengal tiger)[4]


Parasitized by 
Ashworthius perrilli <Unverified Name>[7]
Ctenocephalides orientis[8]
Dermacentor auratus[9]
Echinococcus granulosus[7]
Fischoederius cobboldi <Unverified Name>[7]
Gaigeria pachyscelis <Unverified Name>[7]
Gastrothylax crumenifer <Unverified Name>[7]
Oesophagostomum asperum <Unverified Name>[7]
Oesophagostomum venulosum[7]
Paramphistomum gracile <Unverified Name>[7]
Setaria labiatopapillosa <Unverified Name>[7]
Stephanofilaria jaheeri <Unverified Name>[7]
Stephanofilaria zaheeri <Unverified Name>[7]
Trichuris globulosa[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)
African Safari
Al Ain Zoo
Al-Wabra Wildlife Preservation
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
Artis Zoo
Bannerghatta Biological Park
Biological Park Itanagar
Blackbrook Zoological Park
Bowmanville Zoological Park
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Chiangmai Zoological Garden
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dept. of National Zoological Gardens
DSI Givskud Zoo
Giza Zoological Garden
Greater Vancouver Zoo
Guadalajara Zoo
Hamilton Zoo
Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Jawaharlal Nehru Biological Park
Khao Kheow Open Zoo
Kishinev Zoopark
Knowsley Safari Park
Kolmardens Djurpark AB
Kyiv Zoological Park
Le Pal, Parc Animalier
Lion Country Safari Inc - Florida
Louisiana Purchase Gardens & Zoo
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunn
Miami Metrozoo
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Wybrzeza
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRL
Nakhon Ratchasima Zool. Park
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africa
National Trust for Nature Conservation
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniu
Out of Africa Wildlife Park
Parc Paysager Et Animalier Du Reynou
Parc Safari / F.A.P.S.
Parc Zoologic de Barcelona
Parc Zoologique de la Barben
Parc Zoologique de Paris (MNHN)
Parc Zoologique de Tregomeur
Parco Natura Viva
Park i Ogrod Zoologiczny w Krakowie
Parque Zoologico Nacional, ZOODOM
Patronato del Parque Zoologico de Leon
Planete Sauvage
Port Lympne Wild Animal Park
Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park
Safari de Peaugres
Safaripark Beekse Bergen
San Diego Wild Animal Park
Sanjay Gandhi Biological Park
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH
Silesian Zoological Garden
Silver Springs Park
Songkhla Zoo
Terra Natura S.A.
Thoiry Zoological Park
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnberg
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbH
Tierwelt Herberstein
Turtle Back Zoo
Usti nad Labem Zoo
Virginia Safari Park & Preserv Ctr,Inc
West Midland Safari & Leisure Park Ltd
Wildlife Safari Inc
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo De Servion
Zoo Dortmund
Zoo Dresden GmbH
Zoo Krefeld GmbH
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoo Taiping & Night Safari
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Gan
Zoologicka Garden & Chateau Zlin-Lesna
Zoologicka zahrada Bojnice
Zoologicka Zahrada Kosice
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzen
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbH

Range Map

North America; Southern Asia;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Food habits of ungulates in dry tropical forests of Gir Lion Sanctuary, Gujarat, India, Jamal A. KHAN, Acta Theriologica 39 (2): 185-193,1994.
4Boselaphus tragocamelus, DAVID M. LESLIE, JR., MAMMALIAN SPECIES 813:1–16 (2008)
5"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
6Cuon alpinus, James A. Cohen, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 100, pp. 1-3 (1978)
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
8International Flea Database
9Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access