Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Monotremata > Tachyglossidae > Tachyglossus > Tachyglossus aculeatus
 

Tachyglossus aculeatus (Short-beaked Echidna)

Wikipedia Abstract

The short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) is one of four living species of echidna and the only member of the genus Tachyglossus. The short-beaked echidna is covered in fur and spines and has a distinctive snout and a specialized tongue, which it uses to catch its prey at a great speed.
View Wikipedia Record: Tachyglossus aculeatus

Infraspecies

Tachyglossus aculeatus acanthion (Short-beaked echidna)
Tachyglossus aculeatus aculeatus (Short-beaked echidna)
Tachyglossus aculeatus lawesii (New Guinea short-beaked echidna)
Tachyglossus aculeatus multiaculeatus (Kangaroo Island echidna)
Tachyglossus aculeatus setosus (Tasmanian short-beaked echidna)

EDGE Analysis

The name echidna orginates from the Greek goodess Ekhidna who was believed to be half reptile and half mammal, with the face of a woman but the body of a serpent. Enchidnas are monotremes. Monotremes differ from all other mammals and resemble reptiles in that they lay shell covered eggs that hatch outside the mother’s body. Monotremes are also unique in that they have only a single passage, the cloaca, for both excretion and reproduction. There are only five species of montremes in the world: four species of echidna and the duck-billed platypus. They are the most distinct order of all living mammals.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
28
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
51
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 55.95
EDGE Score: 4.04
View EDGE Record: Tachyglossus aculeatus

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  3.42 lbs (1.55 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  0.379 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year 6 months
Male Maturity [1]  1 year 6 months
Diet [2]  Carnivore
Gestation [1]  22 days
Hibernates [2]  Yes
Litter Size [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  50 years
Nocturnal [2]  Yes
Weaning [1]  6 months 20 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Arnhem Land tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Australian Alps montane grasslands Australia Australasia Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Brigalow tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cape York Peninsula tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Carnarvon xeric shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Carpentaria tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Range montane rain forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Ranges xeric scrub Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Coolgardie woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Eastern Australia mulga shrublands Australia Australasia Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Australian temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Einasleigh upland savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Esperance mallee Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Eyre and York mallee Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Gibson desert Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Great Sandy-Tanami desert Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Great Victoria desert Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Huon Peninsula montane rain forests Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Jarrah-Karri forest and shrublands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Kimberly tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mitchell grass downs Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mount Lofty woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Murray-Darling woodlands and mallee Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Naracoorte woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern New Guinea lowland rain and freshwater swamp forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nullarbor Plains xeric shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pilbara shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Queensland tropical rain forests Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Simpson desert Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southeast Australia temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southeast Australia temperate savanna Australia Australasia Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southeastern Papuan rain forests Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern New Guinea freshwater swamp forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern New Guinea lowland rain forests Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Australia savanna Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Australia woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Swan Coastal Plain Scrub and Woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Tasmanian Central Highland forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tasmanian temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tasmanian temperate rain forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tirari-Sturt stony desert Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Trans Fly savanna and grasslands Indonesia, Papua New Guinea Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Victoria Plains tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Vogelkop-Aru lowland rain forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Australian Mulga shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bald Rock National Park II 21998 New South Wales, Australia
Coorong National Park II 121235 South Australia, Australia
Crater Lakes National Park II 2320 Queensland, Australia
Croajingolong National Park II 217067 Victoria, Australia
Dunggir National Park II 6402 New South Wales, Australia
Fitzgerald River National Park II 732417 Western Australia, Australia
Flinders Chase National Park II 81245 South Australia, Australia
Girraween National Park II 28978 Queensland, Australia
Grampians National Park II 416373 Victoria, Australia
Hattah-Kulkyne NP and Murray-Kulkyne Park National Park II 122831 Victoria, Australia
Kakadu National Park II 4744348 Northern Territory, Australia
Kosciuszko National Park II 1705480 New South Wales, Australia
Lamington National Park II 50970 Queensland, Australia
Lavinia Nature Reserve State Reserve II 17390 Tasmania, Australia    
Prince Regent River Nature Reserve Ia 1428602 Western Australia, Australia  
Purnululu National Park II 604999 Western Australia, Australia
Riverland Biosphere Reserve Ia 1490891 South Australia, Australia
Shoalwater and Corio Bays Area Ramsar Site   Queensland, Australia
Southwest National Park II 1531400 Tasmania, Australia
Uluru - Kata Tjuta National Park II 332429 Northern Territory, Australia
Wasur-Rawa Biru National Park 605464 Papua, Indonesia  
Wilson's Promontory National Park II 119279 Victoria, Australia
Yathong Nature Reserve Ia 270264 New South Wales, Australia

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Southwest Australia Australia No

Prey / Diet

Amblyopone australis[3]
Badumna insignis (Black house spider)[3]
Cerapachys larvatus[3]
Delena cancerides (Flat huntsman spider)[3]
Discothyrea bidens[3]
Forficula auricularia (European earwig)[3]
Gryllotalpa australis[3]
Kinemania ambulans (raspy cricket)[3]
Litodamus olga (red & blue spider)[3]
Musca domestica (house fly)[3]
Musca vetustissima (Australian bush fly)[3]
Oncopera intricata (Corbie)[3]
Oxycanus dirempta[3]
Pholcus phalangioides (Long-bodied cellar spider)[3]
Platythyrea turneri[3]
Spodoptera mauritia (lawn armyworm)[3]
Vespula germanica (European wasp)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Dasyurus viverrinus (Eastern Quoll)1
Isoodon obesulus (Southern Brown Bandicoot)1

Predators

Canis lupus dingo (domestic dog)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Babesia tachyglossi <Unverified Name>[5]
Bradiopsylla echidnae[6]
Ctenocephalides felis felis[6]
Ctenocephalides orientis[6]
Echidnophaga ambulans ambulans[6]
Echidnophaga ambulans inepta[6]
Echidnophaga gallinacea (sticktight flea)[6]
Echidnophaga liopus[6]
Echidnophaga perilis (Rabbit stickfast flea)[6]
Echidnotaenia tachyglossi <Unverified Name>[7]
Eimeria echidnae <Unverified Name>[5]
Eimeria tachyglossi <Unverified Name>[5]
Hepatozoon tachyglossi <Unverified Name>[5]
Linstowia echidnae <Unverified Name>[7]
Nicollina cameroni <Unverified Name>[7]
Nicollina echidnae <Unverified Name>[7]
Nicollina patriciae <Unverified Name>[7]
Nicollina queenslandensis <Unverified Name>[7]
Nicollina ridei <Unverified Name>[7]
Nicollina spearei <Unverified Name>[7]
Nicollina tachyglossi <Unverified Name>[7]
Octosporella hystrix <Unverified Name>[5]
Ophidascaris robertsi <Unverified Name>[7]
Parapharyngodon anomalus <Unverified Name>[7]
Pulex irritans (human flea)[6]
Spirometra erinacei <Unverified Name>[7]
Stephanocircus dasyuri[6]
Tachynema baylisi <Unverified Name>[7]
Tachynema spratti <Unverified Name>[7]
Tasmanema mundayi <Unverified Name>[7]
Theileria tachyglossi <Unverified Name>[5]
Trypanosoma cruzi[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Adelaide Zooaculeatus
Alice Springs Desert Park
 acanthion
Australia Zoo
Brisbane's Alma Park Zoo
Chicago Zoological Park
 aculeatus
 setosus
Cleland Wildlife Park
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
 aculeatus
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary
Ellen Trout Zoosetosus
Fort Wayne Children's Zoo
 aculeatus
Healesville Sanctuaryaculeatus
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens
 setosus
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardens
 multiaculeatus
Melbourne Zooaculeatus
Nagoya Higashiyama Zoo
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Perth Zoological Gardensacanthion
Saint Louis Zoological Park
San Diego Zooaculeatus
Taronga Zoo
 aculeatus
Territory Wildlife Park (Berry Springsacanthion
The Philadelphia Zoo
Toronto Zoo
 setosus
Western Plains Zoo
 aculeatus
Wild Animal Park Mechelen Planckendaelaculeatus
Zoologischer Garten Frankfurt

Range Map

Australia; Croajingolong;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3OBSERVATIONS ON THE DIET AND FEEDING HABITS OF THE SHORT-BEAKED ECHIDNA (TACHYGLOSSUS ACULEATUS) IN TASMANIA, Chris P. Spencer & Karen Richards, The Tasmanian Naturalist 131 (2009), p. 36-41 4Who's Eating Who 5Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19 6International Flea Database 7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access