Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Felidae > Leptailurus > Leptailurus serval
 

Leptailurus serval (Serval)

Synonyms: Felis serval

Wikipedia Abstract

The serval /ˈsɜːrvəl/ (Leptailurus serval), also known as the tierboskat, is a wild cat found in Africa. It is the sole member of the genus Leptailurus and was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1776. Eighteen subspecies are recognised. The serval is a slender, medium-sized cat that stands 54–62 cm (21–24 in) at the shoulder and weighs 9–18 kg (20–40 lb). It is characterised by a small head, large ears, a golden-yellow to buff coat spotted and striped with black, and a short, black-tipped tail. The serval has the longest legs of any cat relative to its body size.
View Wikipedia Record: Leptailurus serval

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
5
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
27
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 11.01
EDGE Score: 2.49

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  29.43 lbs (13.35 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  263 grams
Female Maturity [1]  2 years 3 months
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Vertebrates)
Diet - Endothermic [2]  100 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  70 days
Litter Size [1]  3
Litters / Year [1]  3
Maximum Longevity [1]  22 years
Nocturnal [2]  Yes
Weaning [1]  4 months 8 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Albany thickets South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Albertine Rift montane forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi,Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Angolan montane forest-grassland mosaic Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Angolan Mopane woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Cameroonian Highlands forests Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cross-Niger transition forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East African halophytics Tanzania Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
East African montane forests Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East African montane moorlands Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Arc forests Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Mozambique Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Zimbabwe montane forest-grassland mosaic Zimbabwe, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eritrean coastal desert Eritrea Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Ethiopian montane forests Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Ethiopia, Eritrea Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian montane moorlands Ethiopia Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guinean montane forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Highveld grasslands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Hobyo grasslands and shrublands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Inner Niger Delta flooded savanna Mali Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kalahari xeric savanna Botswana, Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Knysna-Amatole montane forests South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lake Chad flooded savanna Nigeria, Chad, Niger Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Lowland fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mandara Plateau mosaic Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Masai xeric grasslands and shrublands Kenya Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Niger Delta swamp forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nigerian lowland forests Nigeria, Benin Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Rwenzori-Virunga montane moorlands Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Serengeti volcanic grasslands Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali montane xeric woodlands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Malawi montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Africa bushveld Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Rift montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Gabon, Congo, Democratic Rep of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Zambezian grasslands Angola, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian Cryptosepalum dry forests Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Zambezian flooded grasslands Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian halophytics Mozambique, Botswana Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Amboseli National Park National Reserve II 99624 Kenya
Garamba National Park II 1237963 Democratic Republic of the Congo  
Gombe National Park II 8799 Tanzania
Kahuzi-Biéga National Park II 1647768 Democratic Republic of the Congo  
Kibale National Park II 196202 Uganda
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve   Mpumalanga, South Africa  
Lake Nakuru National Park II 46472 Kenya  
Malolotja Nature Reserve IV 42044 Swaziland  
Mamili National Park II 83904 Namibia  
Mkhaya Game Reserve   Swaziland  
Mlawula Nature Reserve IV 46444 Swaziland  
Moremi Game Reserve IV 1214686 Botswana  
Mount Kenya Biosphere Reserve II 146694 Kenya
Nechisar National Park II 256137 Ethiopia  
Parc National d'Odzala National Park II 3423581 Congo  
Parc National de la Comoe National Park II 2902593 Côte d'Ivoire  
Parc National du Niokolo-Koba National Park II 2046878 Senegal  
Queen Elizabeth National Park II 522052 Uganda
South Luangwa National Park II 2220358 Zambia  
Tsavo East National Park II 3232255 Kenya
Weenen Nature Reserve   Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Cape Floristic Region South Africa No
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No

Prey / Diet

Addax nasomaculatus (addax)[3]
Anas capensis (Cape Teal)[4]
Eupodotis senegalensis (White-bellied Bustard)[4]
Francolinus coqui (Coqui Francolin)[4]
Gazella dorcas (Dorcas gazelle)[5]
Heterohyrax brucei (Yellow-spotted Rock Hyrax)[4]
Litocranius walleri (gerenuk)[6]
Lygodactylus capensis (Cape Dwarf Gecko)[4]
Madoqua guentheri (Günther's dik-dik)[7]
Madoqua kirkii (Kirk's dik-dik)[4]
Otomys angoniensis (Angoni vlei rat)[8]
Otomys irroratus (vlei rat)[9]
Pronolagus rupestris (Smith's Red Rockhare)[4]
Psammophis angolensis (Dwarf Sand Snake)[4]
Redunca arundinum (southern reedbuck)[6]
Steatomys pratensis (fat mouse)[4]
Xerus erythropus (striped ground squirrel)[10]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acinonyx jubatus (Cheetah)3
Aonyx capensis (African Clawless Otter)2
Apalis flavida (Yellow-breasted Apalis)1
Aquila rapax (Tawny Eagle)1
Aquila spilogaster (African Hawk-Eagle)1
Aquila verreauxii (Verreaux's Eagle)2
Ardea cinerea (Grey Heron)1
Ardeotis kori (Kori Bustard)1
Asio capensis (Marsh Owl)7
Atelerix albiventris (Four-toed Hedgehog)1
Atilax paludinosus (Marsh Mongoose)1
Bitis arietans (Puff Adder)3
Bubo africanus (Spotted Eagle-Owl)2
Bubo lacteus (Verreaux's Eagle-Owl)1
Bucorvus leadbeateri (Southern Ground Hornbill)2
Canis adustus (Side-striped Jackal)1
Canis lupus (Wolf)1
Canis mesomelas (Black-backed Jackal)9
Caracal caracal (Caracal)4
Civettictis civetta (African Civet)1
Crocuta crocuta (Spotted Hyena)2
Dendroaspis polylepis (Black Mamba)5
Elanus caeruleus (Black-winged Kite)2
Eremomela icteropygialis (Yellow-bellied Eremomela)1
Eupodotis senegalensis (White-bellied Bustard)3
Felis silvestris (Wildcat)1
Genetta tigrina (Cape Genet)1
Glaucidium perlatum (Pearl-spotted Owlet)4
Haliaeetus vocifer (African Fish Eagle)3
Helogale parvula (Common Dwarf Mongoose)6
Hemachatus haemachatus (Rinkhals, Ring-necked Spitting Cobra, Ringhals)1
Herpestes ichneumon (Egyptian Mongoose)1
Hyaena hyaena (Striped Hyena)1
Ictonyx striatus (Striped Polecat)1
Leptoptilos crumeniferus (Marabou Stork)3
Lophaetus occipitalis (Long-crested Eagle)1
Lycaon pictus (African wild dog)5
Mellivora capensis (Honey Badger)1
Naja nivea (Cape Cobra)1
Necrosyrtes monachus (Hooded Vulture)5
Otocyon megalotis (Bat-eared Fox)5
Otolemur crassicaudatus (greater galago)4
Panthera leo (Lion)2
Panthera pardus (Leopard)8
Poecilogale albinucha (African Striped Weasel)2
Polemaetus bellicosus (Martial Eagle)3
Potamochoerus porcus (red river hog)2
Psammophis angolensis (Dwarf Sand Snake)1
Pseudaspis cana (Mole Snake)1
Python sebae (African Rock Python)2
Stigmochelys pardalis (Leopard Tortoise)1
Tachybaptus ruficollis (Little Grebe)3
Terathopius ecaudatus (Bateleur)1
Tockus nasutus epirhinus (South African grey hornbill)1
Torgos tracheliotus (lappet-faced vulture)4
Tyto alba (Barn Owl)2
Tyto capensis (Grass Owl)2
Varanus exanthematicus (Savannah Monitor)1
Varanus niloticus (Nile Monitor, Water Leguaan)3

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ancylostoma brasiliense[11]
Ancylostoma paraduodenale <Unverified Name>[11]
Ctenocephalides canis (Dog flea)[12]
Ctenocephalides felis felis[12]
Ctenocephalides felis strongylus[12]
Echidnophaga gallinacea (sticktight flea)[12]
Joyeuxiella fuhrmanni <Unverified Name>[11]
Toxascaris leonina[11]
Toxocara canarisi <Unverified Name>[11]
Toxocara cati (feline roundworm)[11]
Xenopsylla aequisetosa[12]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Adelaide Zoo
Africa Alive!
Al Ain Zoo
Alabama Gulf Coast Zoo
Albuquerque Biological Park
Alexandria Zoological Park
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
America's Teaching Zoo
Ardastra Gardens & Conserv. Centre
Artis Zoo
Attica Zoological Park S.A.
Auckland Zoological Park
 serval
Blaavand Zoo
Blank Park Zoo of Des Moines
Bowmanville Zoological Park
Brandywine Zoo
BREC's Baton Rouge Zoo
Bronx Children's Zoo
Buffalo Zoological Gardens
Caldwell Zoo
Capron Park Zoo
Chattanooga Zoo at Warner Park
Chehaw Wild Animal Park
Children's Zoo at Celebration Square
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
Dakota Zoo
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dept. of National Zoological Gardensserval
Dierenpark de Oliemeulen (Zoo Tilburg)
Dierenpark Emmen
Drusillas Zoo Park
Dusit (Bangkok) Zoological Park
Espace Zoolog de St-Martin-la-Plaine
Espace Zoologique la Boissiere du Dore
Exotic Feline Breeding Compound Inc.
Fort Wayne Children's Zoo
Fort Worth Zoological Park
Freeport-McMoran Audubon SpecSurvl Ctr
Fresno Chaffee Zoo
Fundacao Parque Zoologico de Sao Paulo
Giza Zoological Garden
Gladys Porter Zoo
Great Bend Zoo and Raptor Center
Hamilton Zoo
Hattiesburg Zoo
Honolulu Zoo
Howletts Wild Animal Park
International Animal Exchange, Inc.
International Exotic Animal Sanctuary
INTERZOO
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoo
Johannesburg Zoological Gardens
Jyllands Park Zoo
Kansas City Zoo
Kazan Zoological & Botanical Garden
Khao Kheow Open Zoo
Kittenberger Zoo
Le Parc des Felins
Lietuvos Zoologijos Sodas
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens
Little Rock Zoological Gardens
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardens
Louisiana Purchase Gardens & Zoo
Marwell Wildlife
Maryland Zoo in Baltimore
Melbourne Zoo
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquarium
Mesker Park Zoo
Miami Metrozoo
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodz
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Wybrzeza
Mogo Zoo P/L
Mokopane Biodiversity Conservation Centre
Moonridge Animal Park
Mountain View Conservation & Breeding
Municipal Independent Org. Roev Ruchei
Nagoya Higashiyama Zoo
Nashville Zoo at Grassmere
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africa
National Zoo & Aquarium
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Council
North of England Zoological Society
Novosibirsk Zoological Park
Oasys Parque del Desierto de Tabernas
Ogrod Zoologiczny im. Stefana Milera
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Opolu, Opole
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Olmense Zoo
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Orana Wildlife Park
Out of Africa Wildlife Park
Palm Beach Zoo at Dreher Park
Parc Paysager Et Animalier Du Reynou
Parc Safari / F.A.P.S.
Parc Zoologique d'Amneville
Parco Zoo Punta Verde
Park i Ogrod Zoologiczny w Krakowie
Reaseheath College Animal Centre
Riga Zoo
Riverview Park & Zoo
Rotterdam Zoo
Sacramento Zoo
Safari West
Safaripark Beekse Bergen
San Diego Wild Animal Park
San Diego Zoo
 hindei
Seneca Park Zoo
Singapore Zoological Gardens
Six Flags Discovery Kingdom
Sofia Zoological Gardens
Staten Island Zoo
STB Kanta - Friguia Zoo
Taipei Zoo
Tama Zoological Park
Tautphaus Park Zoo
Tbilisi Zoo
The Anne van Dyk Cheetah Centre
The Living Desert Zoo and Gardens
The Naples Zoo
The Tisch Family Zoological Gardens
Thoiry Zoological Park
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbH
Touroparc
Tropiquaria Wildlife Park
Trotter's World of Animals
Virginia Safari Park & Preserv Ctr,Inc
Wadi Al Safa Wildlife Centre
Wellington Zoo Trust
Werribee Open Range Zoo
Wildlife Heritage Foundation
Wildlife World Zoo
Wilhelma Zoo
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb
Zoo Boise
Zoo d'Asson
Zoo de Fuengirola (Rain Forest SL)
Zoo de Jurques
Zoo de La Fleche
Zoo de Pont-Scorff
Zoo De Servion
Zoo Dortmund
Zoo Dvur Kralove, a.s.
Zoo Krefeld GmbH
Zoo Melaka
Zoo of Acadiana
Zoo Osnabrück
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoo Taiping & Night Safari
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Gan
Zoological Society of London
Zoologicka zahrada Ostrava
Zoologicka Zahrada Jihlava
Zoologicka Zahrada Kosice
Zoologischer Garten Leipzig
Zoologischer Garten Saarbruecken
Zoologischer Garten Schmiding

Range Map

Africa; Tsavo National Park;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Addax nasomaculatus, Paul R. Krausman and Anne L. Casey, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 807, pp. 1-4 (2007)
4The Serengeti food web: empirical quantification and analysis of topological changes under increasing human impact, Sara N. de Visser, Bernd P. Freymann and Han Olff, Journal of Animal Ecology 2011, 80, 484–494
5Gazella dorcas, Yoram Yom-Tov, Heinrich Mendelssohn, and Colin P. Groves, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 491, pp. 1-6 (1995)
6Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
7Madoqua guentheri, Steven C. Kingswood and Arlene T. Kumamoto, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 539, pp. 1-10 (1996)
8Otomys angoniensis, G. N. Bronner and J. A. J. Meester, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 306, pp. 1-6 (1988)
9Otomys irroratus, G. Bronner, S. Gordon, and J. Meester, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 308, pp. 1-6 (1988)
10Xerus erythropus, Matthew D. Herron and Jane M. Waterman, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 748, pp. 1–4 (2004)
11Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
12International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access