Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Piciformes > Ramphastidae > Ramphastos > Ramphastos toco
 

Ramphastos toco (Toco Toucan)

Wikipedia Abstract

The toco toucan (Ramphastos toco), also known as the common toucan or toucan, is the largest and probably the best known species in the toucan family. It is found in semi-open habitats throughout a large part of central and eastern South America. It is a common attraction in zoos.
View Wikipedia Record: Ramphastos toco

Infraspecies

Ramphastos toco albogularis (Southern toco toucan)
Ramphastos toco toco (Northern toco toucan)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
9
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
27
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 7.72863
EDGE Score: 2.16661

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  1.19 lbs (540 g)
Clutch Size [2]  3
Incubation [1]  16 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  16 years

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alta Paraná Atlantic forests Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Amazon-Orinoco-Southern Caribbean mangroves Brazil, Columbia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela Neotropic Mangroves  
Araucaria moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Beni savanna Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Bolivian Yungas Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Campos Rupestres montane savanna Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Andean puna Argentina, Bolivia, Peru Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Cerrado Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Chiquitano dry forests Bolivia, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Dry Chaco Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Espinal Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guianan Freshwater swamp forests Suriname, Guyana, French Guiana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan moist forests Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Gurupa varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Humid Chaco Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Marajó varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mato Grosso seasonal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Monte Alegre varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeastern Brazil restingas Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pantanal Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Paraná flooded savanna Argentina Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Serra do Mar coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Southern Andean Yungas Bolivia, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Cone Mesopotamian savanna Argentina Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Tocantins/Pindare moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Uruguayan savanna Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bosque Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve V 691895 Paraguay  
Caaguazú National Park II 33073 Paraguay  
Carapá Biological Refuge IV 9071 Paraguay  
Cerro Corá National Park II 31326 Paraguay  
El Rey National Park II 110298 Salta, Argentina
Estacion Biologica Beni Biosphere Reserve VI 335178 Bolivia  
Estancia Fortín Patria   Paraguay      
Itabó Biological Reserve IV 34092 Paraguay  
Limoy Biological Reserve IV 33774 Paraguay  
Madidi National Park II 3194501 Bolivia  
Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve State Sustainable Development Reserve VI 3260792 Amazonas, Brazil  
Maracá Ecological Reserve Ia 257554 Roraima, Brazil  
Mbaracayú Biological Refuge IV 4039 Paraguay  
Mburucuyá National Park II   Corrientes, Argentina  
Moisés Bertoni Natural Monument 488 Paraguay
Noel Kempff Mercado National Park II 4006523 Bolivia  
Parque Nacional Iguazú National Park II 115949 Argentina  
Parque Nacional Serranía San Luis National Park II 29816 Paraguay  
Paso Bravo National Park 256207 Paraguay  
Pikyry Biological Refuge IV 2898 Paraguay  
Río Negro National Park II 73775 Paraguay  
Río Pilcomayo National Park II 123699 Formosa, Argentina
San Rafael, Reserva de Recursos Manejados Managed Resource Reserve VI 165840 Paraguay  
Serra da Canastra National Park II 491304 Minas Gerais, Brazil  
Tatí Yupí Biological Refuge IV 5052 Paraguay  
Ypoa National Park 303997 Paraguay  
Yvytyruzu Managed Resources Reserve Managed Resource Reserve VI 63491 Paraguay  

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Atlantic Forest Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay No
Cerrado Brazil No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No

Prey / Diet

Cruziohyla craspedopus[3]
Ficus eximia[4]
Heliconia psittacorum (parakeetflower)[3]
Miconia albicans[5]
Morpho menelaus (Blue Morpho)[3]
Ouratea spectabilis[5]
Parkia velutina (parkia tree)[3]
Schefflera macrocarpa[5]
Schefflera vinosa[5]
Thecadactylus rapicauda (Turniptail Gecko)[3]
Virola sebifera (virola)[5]
Xylopia emarginata[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alouatta guariba guariba (brown howler monkey)1
Artibeus lituratus (great fruit-eating bat)1
Ateles geoffroyi (Central American spider monkey)1
Ateles paniscus (black spider monkey)1
Baillonius bailloni (saffron toucanet)1
Baryphthengus martii (Rufous Motmot)1
Brotogeris tirica (Plain Parakeet)1
Chrotopterus auritus (big-eared woolly bat)1
Cyanocorax cristatellus (Curl-crested Jay)1
Eunectes murinus (Anaconda, Green Anaconda)1
Forpus xanthopterygius (Blue-winged Parrotlet)1
Pionus maximiliani (Scaly-headed Parrot)1
Pteroglossus torquatus (Collared Aracari)1
Ramphastos sulfuratus (Keel-billed Toucan)1
Ramphastos swainsonii (Chestnut-mandibled Toucan)1
Sapajus apella (brown capuchin)2
Schistochlamys ruficapillus (Cinnamon Tanager)1
Tangara desmaresti (Brassy-breasted Tanager)1
Tityra semifasciata (Masked Tityra)1
Trogon massena (Slaty-tailed Trogon)1

Predators

Harpia harpyja (Harpy Eagle)[3]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Capillaria columbae <Unverified Name>[6]
Capillaria venusta <Unverified Name>[6]
Oxyspirura sygmoidea <Unverified Name>[6]
Paratanaisia confusa <Unverified Name>[6]
Thelazia digitata <Unverified Name>[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aalborg Zoo
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)
Albuquerque Biological Park
Amazon World
Attica Zoological Park S.A.
Audubon Zoo
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
 toco
Caldwell Zoo
Cape May County Park Zoo
City of Belfast Zoo
Cologne Zoo
Copenhagen Zoo
Dallas World Aquarium
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dudley Zoological Gardens
Ellen Trout Zoo
Faunia (Parque Biologico De Madrid,SA)
Fundacao Parque Zoologico de Sao Paulo
Fundacao Zoo-Botan. de Belo Horizonte
Greenville Zoo
Guadalajara Zoo
Hong Kong Zool. & Botanical Gardens
Honolulu Zoo
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Inokashira Park Zoo
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoo
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
Khao Kheow Open Zoo
Knoxville Zoological Gardens
Leeds Castle Enterprises Ltd.
Linton Zoological Gardens
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquarium
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Montecasino Bird Gardens
Montgomery Zoo
Moscow Zoological Park
Mundomar
Museum de Besancon
Nashville Zoo at Grassmere
Natural Encounters, Inc.
Natural Science Center of Greensboro
Novosibirsk Zoological Park
Ocean Park Corporation
Ouwehand Zoo
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Palms Oasis at Stapeley Water Gardens
Paradise Park Wildlife Sanctuary
Parc des Oiseauxtoco
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Parc Zoologic de Barcelona
Parco Zoo Punta Verde
Parque De Animales Silvestres Temaikènalbogularis
Parque Zoologico Huachipa
Riverbanks Zoo and Garden
Rotterdam Zoo
Santa Barbara Zoological Gardens
St. Augustine Alligator Farm
Stichting Nederlands Opvang Papegaaien
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo
Terra Natura S.A.
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Umgeni River Bird Park
Wadi Al Safa Wildlife Centre
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park
Wilhelma Zoo
Zoo Atlanta
Zoo de Doue-la-Fontaine
Zoo de Fuengirola (Rain Forest SL)
Zoo de la Bourbansais
Zoo de La Fleche
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternario
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Gan
Zoological Society of London
Zoologicka Garden & Chateau Zlin-Lesna
Zoologická zahrada Hodonín
Zoologischer Garten Leipzig
Zoologischer Garten Wuppertal

Range Map

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Intrinsic aging-related mortality in birds, Robert E. Ricklefs, JOURNAL OF AVIAN BIOLOGY 31: 103–111. Copenhagen 2000 2Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 3Animals of the Rainforest 4"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572 5TOCO TOUCAN FEEDING ECOLOGY AND LOCAL ABUNDANCE IN A HABITAT MOSAIC IN THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO, José Ragusa-Netto, ORNITOLOGIA NEOTROPICAL 19: 345–359, 2008 6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access