Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Emberizidae > Pipilo > Pipilo maculatus
 

Pipilo maculatus (Spotted Towhee)

Wikipedia Abstract

The spotted towhee (Pipilo maculatus) is a large New World sparrow. The taxonomy of the towhees has been debated in recent decades, and formerly this bird and the eastern towhee were considered a single species, the rufous-sided towhee. An archaic name for the spotted towhee is the Oregon towhee (Pipilo maculatus oregonus).The form that breeds on Socorro Island is much smaller than other rufous-sided towhees, and has gray upperparts.
View Wikipedia Record: Pipilo maculatus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
2
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
14
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 2.90647
EDGE Score: 1.36263

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  40 grams
Female Maturity [1]  2 years
Male Maturity [1]  2 years
Breeding Habitat [2]  Temperate western forests, Mexican pine-oak forests, Pine-oak forests
Wintering Geography [2]  Western U.S./Mexico
Wintering Habitat [2]  Forests
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Granivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  20 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  50 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  30 %
Forages - Understory [3]  30 %
Forages - Ground [3]  70 %
Clutch Size [4]  4
Global Population (2017 est.) [2]  33,000,000
Maximum Longevity [1]  11 years

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
California coastal sage and chaparral Mexico, United States Nearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Central American pine-oak forests Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Chihuahuan desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Islas Revillagigedo dry forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests    
Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests Mexico Nearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sonoran desert Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest Mexico Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Tamaulipan matorral Mexico Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tamaulipan mezquital Mexico, United States Nearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands Mexico, United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands  

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA III 184543 California, United States
Audubon National Wildlife Refuge IV 14642 North Dakota, United States
Boggs Mountain Demonstration State Forest   California, United States
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Capital Reef National Park II 243722 Utah, United States
Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge Ia   Idaho, United States
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area V 1087901 Arizona, Utah, United States
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Heath and Marjorie Angelo Coast Range Preserve Nature Conservancy - Preserve Ia 7008 California, United States
Jackson Demonstration State Forest   California, United States
Jornada Biosphere Reserve Ib 30913 New Mexico, United States
Latour Demonstration State Forest   California, United States
Little River National Wildlife Refuge   Oklahoma, United States
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Mount Rainier National Park II 235186 Washington, United States
Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve 327376 Arizona, United States  
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
California Floristic Province Mexico, United States No
Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands Mexico, United States No
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama No

Prey / Diet

Amaranthus retroflexus (rough pigweed)[5]
Avena fatua (flaxgrass)[5]
Calandrinia ciliata (fringed redmaids)[5]
Claytonia perfoliata (miners lettuce)[5]
Erodium cicutarium (redstem)[5]
Lonicera involucrata (bearberry honeysuckle)[5]
Madia sativa (coast tarweed)[5]
Plantago lanceolata (narrowleaf plantain)[5]
Plectocephalus americanus (Tecolote)[5]
Rumex acetosella (Common Sheep Sorrel)[5]
Saissetia miranda (mexican black scale)[5]
Stellaria media (chickweed)[5]
Toxicodendron diversilobum (pacific poisonoak)[5]
Zea mays (corn)[5]

Predators

Accipiter cooperii (Cooper's Hawk)[5]
Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Baylisascaris procyonis[6]

Range Map

North America;

Audio

Play / PauseVolume
Provided by eNature via Myxer Author: Lang Elliot

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Partners in Flight Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2017. Accessed on January 2018.
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2