Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Bucerotiformes > Bucerotidae > Buceros > Buceros bicornis
 

Buceros bicornis (Great Hornbill)

Wikipedia Abstract

The great hornbill (Buceros bicornis) also known as the great Indian hornbill or great pied hornbill, is one of the larger members of the hornbill family. It is found in South and Southeast Asia. Its impressive size and colour have made it important in many tribal cultures and rituals. The great hornbill is long-lived, living for nearly 50 years in captivity. It is predominantly frugivorous, but is an opportunist and will prey on small mammals, reptiles and birds.
View Wikipedia Record: Buceros bicornis

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
17
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
48
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 13.4065
EDGE Score: 3.36083

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  6.17 lbs (2.80 kg)
Male Weight [3]  6.63 lbs (3.01 kg)
Clutch Size [2]  2
Maximum Longevity [1]  33 years

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Cardamom Mountains rain forests Cambodia, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests Myanmar, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Luang Prabang montane rain forests Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Malabar Coast moist forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Annamites rain forests Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle subtropical forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran lowland rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran peat swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park II 421336 Myanmar  
Bach Ma National Park II 54733 Viet Nam
Berbak National Park II 423927 Sumatra, Indonesia
Budo-Sungai Padi National Park II 84766 Thailand  
Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park II 836773 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Bung Kroeng Kavia Non-hunting Area   Thailand      
Buxa Tiger Reserve Sanctuary IV 23685 West Bengal, India  
Cat Tien National Park II 188942 Viet Nam
Central Cardamom Mountains Protected Forest IV 993073 Cambodia  
Chaloem Rattanakosin National Park II 14328 Thailand  
Corbett National Park II 141853 Uttaranchal, India
Doi Chiang Dao Wildlife Sanctuary   Thailand      
Doi Pha Hom Pok Watershed Area National Park II 133848 Thailand  
Dong Ampham National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 496673 Laos  
Dong Hua Sao National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 236373 Laos  
Erawan National Park II 131204 Thailand
Gunung Leuser National Park II 2203368 Sumatra, Indonesia
Hala Bala Wildlife Sanctuary IV 101344 Thailand  
Hin Namno National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 214373 Laos  
Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 699629 Thailand  
Kaeng Krachan National Park II 753452 Thailand
Kerinci Seblat National Park II 3463483 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Khao Ang Ru Nai Wildlife Sanctuary IV 248699 Thailand  
Khao Banthat Wildlife Sanctuary IV 309428 Thailand  
Khao Chamao-Khao Wong National Park II 20311 Thailand
Khao Khieo-Khao Chomphu Wildlife Sanctuary IV 36570 Thailand  
Khao Luang National Park II 143331 Thailand
Khao Phanom Bencha National Park II 12840 Thailand
Khao Pra Bang Kram Wildlife Sanctuary IV 30009 Thailand  
Khao Pu - Khao Ya National Park II 176398 Thailand
Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuary IV 182353 Thailand  
Khao Sok National Park II 159284 Thailand
Khao Yai National Park II 542694 Thailand
Khaoen Si Nakarin National Park II 459154 Thailand
Khlong Nakha Wildlife Sanctuary IV 117887 Thailand  
Khlong Phraya Wildlife Sanctuary IV 36624 Thailand  
Khlong Saeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 243425 Thailand  
Kudremukh National Park II 202772 Karnataka, India  
Lum Nam Pai Wildlife Sanctuary IV 298416 Thailand  
Mae Sa-Kog Ma Reserve   Thailand      
Mae Tuen Wildlife Sanctuary IV 307947 Thailand  
Mae Wong National Park II 221459 Thailand
Mae Yuam Wildlife Sanctuary   Thailand      
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Mu Ko Chang National Park Marine National Park II 168511 Thailand
Mu Ko Libong Non-hunting Area No or Non Hunting Area   Thailand      
Nam Kading National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 419016 Laos  
Nam Nao National Park II 240993 Thailand
Nam Xam National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 186111 Laos  
Namdapha National Park II   Arunachal Pradesh, India
Om Koi Wildlife Sanctuary IV 299357 Thailand  
Pang Sida National Park II 211956 Thailand
Phou Dene Dinh National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 463651 Laos  
Phu Chong - Na Yoi National Park II 171322 Thailand
Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary IV 391278 Thailand  
Phu Kradung National Park II 63197 Thailand
Prince Chumphon Park (North) Wildlife Sanctuary IV 152683 Thailand  
Pu Mat National Park IV 239739 Viet Nam  
Rajaji National Park II 196637 Uttaranchal, India  
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Sai Yok National Park II 235556 Thailand
Sakaerat Environmental Research Station Biosphere Reserve 19294 Thailand  
Salak Phra Wildlife Sanctuary IV 241622 Thailand  
Salawin National Park II 400497 Thailand
Si Phang Nga National Park II 60672 Thailand
Tarutao National Park Marine National Park II 312077 Thailand  
Thaleban National Park Marine National Park II 49715 Thailand
Thap Lan National Park II 550979 Thailand
Thung Salaeng Luang National Park II 315222 Thailand
Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary IV 918234 Thailand  
Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 45094 Thailand  
Umphang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 619152 Thailand  
Way Kambas National Park II 306926 Sumatra, Indonesia
Xe Bang Nouane National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 322522 Laos  
Xe Pian National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 645271 Laos  
Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve V 567531 Yunnan, China  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Emblem of

Arunachal Pradesh
Kerala

Prey / Diet

Cinnamomum subavenium[4]
Dysoxylum densiflorum[4]
Ficus altissima (false banyan)[5]
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)[5]
Ficus callosa[5]
Ficus drupacea (brown-woolly fig)[5]
Ficus geniculata[5]
Ficus glaberrima[5]
Ficus kurzii[5]
Ficus religiosa (peepul tree)[5]
Ficus subcordata[5]
Ficus talboti[5]
Ficus thonningii (Chinese banyan)[5]
Ficus tsjahela[5]
Horsfieldia glabra[4]
Livistona speciosa[4]
Polyalthia laui[4]
Polyalthia viridis[4]
Prunus javanica[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aceros cassidix (Knobbed Hornbill)3
Aceros corrugatus (Wrinkled Hornbill)3
Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)3
Acritillas indica (Yellow-browed Bulbul)3
Alophoixus bres (Grey-cheeked Bulbul)3
Alophoixus pallidus (Puff-throated Bulbul)5
Anorrhinus tickelli (Brown Hornbill)5
Anorrhinus tickelli austeni (White-throated Brown Hornbill)5
Anthracoceros albirostris (Oriental Pied Hornbill)11
Anthracoceros malayanus (Black Hornbill)3
Axis axis (chital)3
Buceros rhinoceros (Rhinoceros Hornbill)3
Callosciurus finlaysonii (Finlayson's squirrel)4
Caloramphus fuliginosus (Brown Barbet)5
Calyptomena viridis (Green Broadbill)5
Chloropsis aurifrons (Golden-fronted Leafbird)4
Chloropsis cochinchinensis (Blue-winged Leafbird)8
Chloropsis sonnerati (Greater Green Leafbird)5
Corvus macrorhynchos (Large-billed Crow)3
Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)4
Dicaeum agile (Thick-billed Flowerpecker)4
Dicaeum chrysorrheum (Yellow-vented Flowerpecker)4
Ducula badia (Mountain Imperial Pigeon)5
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)4
Garrulax leucolophus (White-crested Laughingthrush)3
Gracula religiosa (Hill Myna)7
Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)10
Hylobates moloch (silvery gibbon)3
Iole propinqua (Grey-eyed Bulbul)7
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)8
Ixos malaccensis (Streaked Bulbul)3
Loriculus galgulus (Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot)3
Loriculus vernalis (Vernal Hanging Parrot)5
Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque)3
Macaca nemestrina (pigtail macaque)5
Megalaima australis (Blue-eared Barbet)8
Megalaima chrysopogon (Golden-whiskered Barbet)5
Megalaima faiostricta (Green-eared Barbet)6
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)5
Megalaima incognita (Moustached Barbet)3
Megalaima lineata (Lineated Barbet)6
Megalaima mystacophanos (Red-throated Barbet)4
Megalaima rafflesii (Red-crowned Barbet)3
Megalaima rubricapillus (Crimson-fronted Barbet)3
Megalaima viridis (White-cheeked Barbet)3
Oriolus oriolus (Eurasian Golden Oriole)3
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)4
Prionochilus percussus (Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker)3
Prionochilus thoracicus (Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker)3
Psittacula columboides (Blue-winged Parakeet)3
Psittacula cyanocephala (Plum-headed Parakeet)3
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)4
Pycnonotus atriceps (Black-headed Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus brunneus (Asian Red-eyed Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus cafer (Red-vented Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus eutilotus (Puff-backed Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered Bulbul)4
Pycnonotus melanicterus (Black-crested Bulbul)7
Pycnonotus plumosus (Olive-winged Bulbul)3
Ratufa bicolor (black giant squirrel)8
Rhinoplax vigil (Helmeted Hornbill)4
Rhyticeros undulatus (Wreathed Hornbill)11
Tamiops rodolphii (Cambodian striped squirrel)3
Treron capellei (Large Green Pigeon)5
Treron curvirostra (Thick-billed Green Pigeon)8
Zosterops palpebrosus (Oriental White-eye)4

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Al Ain Zoo
Albuquerque Biological Park
Artis Zoo
Audubon Zoo
Bannerghatta Biological Park
Bosphorus Zoo (Bogaziçi Hayvanat
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Burger's Zoo
Chiangmai Zoological Garden
Cologne Zoo
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardens
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dusit (Bangkok) Zoological Park
HeverJardin d'Oiseaux Tropicauxbicornis
 homrai
Hong Kong Zool. & Botanical Gardens
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
Khao Kheow Open Zoo
Kharkiv Zoo
Miami Metrozoo
Nakhon Ratchasima Zool. Park
North of England Zoological Society
Ouwehand Zoo
Parc des Oiseaux
Parc Zoologic de Barcelona
Parc Zoologique de La Palmyre
Parque Ornitologico de Lourosa
Ragunan Zoological Park
Reid Park Zoo
Rostock Zoologischer Garten
Rotterdam Zoo
Sacramento Zoo
Saint Louis Zoological Park
Saitama Children's Zoo
San Diego Wild Animal Park
San Diego Zoo
San Francisco Zoological Gardens
Sanjay Gandhi Biological Park
Singapore Zoological Gardens
Songkhla Zoo
St. Catherine's Wildlife Center
Taipei Zoo
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo
Toronto Zoo
Umgeni River Bird Park
Vogelpark (Birdpark) Avifauna
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park
Wilhelma Zoo
Zoo de Doue-la-Fontaine
Zoo des Sables d'Olonne
Zoo New England, Franklin Park Zoo
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Gan
Zoological Garden Prague
Zoological Society of Ireland-Dublin
Zoologicka Garden & Chateau Zlin-Lesna
Zoologischer Garten Schmiding

Distribution

Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 3Kemp, A. 1995. The Hornbills. Oxford: Oxford University Press 4AN ASSESSMENT OF FOOD OVERLAP BETWEEN GIBBONS AND HORNBILLS, Chuti-on Kanwatanakid-Savini and Pilai Poonswad, Tommaso Savini, THE RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY 2009 57(1): 189–198 5"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access