Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Psittaciformes > Psittacidae > Pionus > Pionus maximiliani
 

Pionus maximiliani (Scaly-headed Parrot)

Wikipedia Abstract

The scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani) is a species of bird in the Psittacidae family, the true parrots. It is also called scaly-headed pionus, Maximilian pionus, Maximilian parrot, Maximilian's pionus, or Maximilian's parrot.It is found in eastern Brazil, central and eastern Bolivia, Paraguay, and northern Argentina. It is found in a wide range of wooded habitats, from humid subtropical forest to arid Caatinga. It is fairly common throughout a large part of its range.
View Wikipedia Record: Pionus maximiliani

Infraspecies

Pionus maximiliani lacerus (Argentine scaly-headed parrot)
Pionus maximiliani maximiliani (Scaly-headed parrot)
Pionus maximiliani melanoblepharus (Central scaly-headed parrot)
Pionus maximiliani siy (Mato Grosso scaly-headed parrot)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
4
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
19
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 4.37192
EDGE Score: 1.68119

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  293 grams
Diet [2]  Frugivore, Granivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  10 %
Diet - Plants [2]  20 %
Diet - Seeds [2]  70 %
Forages - Canopy [2]  20 %
Forages - Mid-High [2]  50 %
Forages - Understory [2]  30 %
Maximum Longevity [1]  16 years

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alta Paraná Atlantic forests Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Araucaria moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Atlantic Coast restingas Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Atlantic dry forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Bahia coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Bahia interior forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Beni savanna Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Caatinga Brazil Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Campos Rupestres montane savanna Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Andean puna Argentina, Bolivia, Peru Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Cerrado Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Chiquitano dry forests Bolivia, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Dry Chaco Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Espinal Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Humid Chaco Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mato Grosso seasonal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pantanal Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Paraná flooded savanna Argentina Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Pernambuco coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pernambuco interior forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Serra do Mar coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Southern Andean Yungas Bolivia, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Cone Mesopotamian savanna Argentina Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Ñacunday National Park II 5435 Paraguay  
Bosque Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve V 691895 Paraguay  
Caaguazú National Park II 33073 Paraguay  
Carapá Biological Refuge IV 9071 Paraguay  
Cerro Corá National Park II 31326 Paraguay  
Defensores del Chaco National Park II 1792493 Paraguay  
El Rey National Park II 110298 Salta, Argentina
Estancia el Trebol   Paraguay      
Estancia Fortín Patria   Paraguay      
Itabó Biological Reserve IV 34092 Paraguay  
Itatiaia National Park II 69730 Minas Gerais, Brazil  
Kuri'y National Reserve Natural Monument III 4972 Paraguay  
Limoy Biological Reserve IV 33774 Paraguay  
Macizo Acahay Natural Monument III 6320 Paraguay  
Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve State Sustainable Development Reserve VI 3260792 Amazonas, Brazil  
Mbaracayú Biological Refuge IV 4039 Paraguay  
Mburucuyá National Park II   Corrientes, Argentina  
Noel Kempff Mercado National Park II 4006523 Bolivia  
Parque Nacional Iguazú National Park II 115949 Argentina  
Parque Nacional Serranía San Luis National Park II 29816 Paraguay  
Paso Bravo National Park 256207 Paraguay  
Pikyry Biological Refuge IV 2898 Paraguay  
Río Negro National Park II 73775 Paraguay  
Río Pilcomayo National Park II 123699 Formosa, Argentina
San Rafael, Reserva de Recursos Manejados Managed Resource Reserve VI 165840 Paraguay  
Serra dos Orgãos National Park II 26072 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  
Sumidouro State Park II 3292 Minas Gerais, Brazil  
Tatí Yupí Biological Refuge IV 5052 Paraguay  
Tinfunqué National Park 607935 Paraguay  
Ybycu'í National Park II 13915 Paraguay  
Ypacaraí National Park II 38504 Paraguay  
Ypoa National Park 303997 Paraguay  
Yvytyruzu Managed Resources Reserve Managed Resource Reserve VI 63491 Paraguay  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Atlantic Forest Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay No
Cerrado Brazil No
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No

Prey / Diet

Aspidosperma polyneuron (red peroba)[3]
Astronium graveolens[3]
Chrysophyllum marginatum[3]
Colubrina glandulosa (glandular nakedwood)[3]
Copaifera langsdorffii (Langsdorf's copaifera)[3]
Croton floribundus[3]
Dalechampia pentaphylla[3]
Dicella bracteosa[3]
Erythrina falcata (Seibo De Jujuy)[3]
Esenbeckia leiocarpa[3]
Ficus eximia[4]
Hymenaea courbaril (stinkingtoe)[3]
Inga affinis (Pacae)[3]
Inga edulis (icecreambean)[5]
Inga uraguensis[3]
Machaerium aculeatum[3]
Machaerium nyctitans (Espuela De Gallo)[3]
Margaritaria nobilis (bastard hogberry)[5]
Metrodorea stipularis[3]
Myroxylon peruiferum (balsamo)[3]
Pachystroma longifolium[3]
Piptadenia gonoacantha[3]
Pourouma guianensis[5]
Protium widgrenii[5]
Pseudobombax grandiflorum[3]
Pyrostegia venusta (flamevine)[3]
Senegalia polyphylla (Pashaco)[3]
Spirotheca codazziana (silk floss tree)[3]
Zea mays (corn)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alouatta guariba guariba (brown howler monkey)2
Alouatta palliata (mantled howler monkey)1
Amazilia versicolor (Versicolored Emerald)1
Amazona farinosa (Mealy Parrot)1
Amazona finschi (Lilac-crowned Parrot)1
Amazona vinacea (Vinaceous-breasted Amazon)1
Ara chloropterus (Red-and-green Macaw)1
Artibeus jamaicensis (Jamaican fruit-eating bat)1
Artibeus lituratus (great fruit-eating bat)1
Ateles geoffroyi (Central American spider monkey)1
Baillonius bailloni (saffron toucanet)1
Bassaricyon gabbii (Olingo)1
Brotogeris tirica (Plain Parakeet)2
Cacicus haemorrhous (Red-rumped Cacique)1
Callicebus nigrifrons (southern masked titi monkey)1
Callithrix aurita (white-eared marmoset)2
Callithrix kuhlii (Weid's black-tufted-ear marmoset)1
Clytolaema rubricauda (Brazilian Ruby)1
Coereba flaveola (Bananaquit)1
Dacnis cayana (Blue Dacnis)1
Eupetomena macroura (Swallow-tailed Hummingbird)1
Florisuga fusca (Black Jacobin)1
Forpus xanthopterygius (Blue-winged Parrotlet)1
Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin)2
Leucochloris albicollis (White-throated Hummingbird)1
Lipaugus lanioides (Cinnamon-vented Piha)1
Penelope obscura (Dusky-legged Guan)1
Pionus menstruus (Blue-headed Parrot)1
Pyrrhura frontalis (Reddish-bellied Parakeet)4
Ramphastos toco (Toco Toucan)1
Ramphastos vitellinus (Channel-billed Toucan)2
Saguinus oedipus (cotton-top tamarin)1
Sapajus apella (brown capuchin)2
Selenidera maculirostris (Spot-billed Toucanet)1
Tapirus terrestris (South American tapir)1
Thalurania glaucopis (Violet-capped Woodnymph)1

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ascaridia hermaphrodita <Unverified Name>[6]
Ascaridia sergiomeirai <Unverified Name>[6]
Pelecitus helecinus <Unverified Name>[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Attica Zoological Park S.A.
Fundacao Zoo-Botan. de Belo Horizonte
Hai Park Kiriat Motzkin
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
Kharkiv Zoosiy
Mitchell Park Zoo
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Parque De Animales Silvestres Temaikèn
Parque Zoologico Benito Juarez
The Parrot Zoo
 maximiliani
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaiamelanoblepharus
Zoobotanico de Jerez

Range Map

Serra dos Orgaos National Park;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Diet of the Scaly-headed Parrot (Pionus maximiliani) in a Semideciduous Forest in Southeastern Brazil, Mauro Galetti, BIOTROPICA 25(4): 419-425 1993
4"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
5Seasonal abundance and feeding ecology of parrots and parakeets in a lowland Atlantic forest of Brazil, Mauro Galetti, Ararajuba 5(2):115-126 (1997)
6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access