Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Accipitriformes > Accipitridae > Aquila > Aquila nipalensis
 

Aquila nipalensis (Steppe Eagle)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) is a bird of prey. It is about 62–81 cm ( ) in length and has a wingspan of 1.65–2.15 m ( ). Females, weighing 2.3–4.9 kg (5–10.8 lbs), are slightly larger than males, at 2–3.5 kg (4.4–7.7 lbs). Like all eagles, it belongs to the family Accipitridae. It was once considered to be closely related to the non-migratory Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax) and the two forms have previously been treated as conspecific.
View Wikipedia Record: Aquila nipalensis

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
7
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
23
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.8771
EDGE Score: 1.9282

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  6.05 lbs (2.75 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  117 grams
Female Weight [3]  6.96 lbs (3.16 kg)
Clutch Size [4]  2
Maximum Longevity [1]  41 years
Migration [5]  Intercontinental
Speed [6]  17.22 MPH (7.7 m/s)
Wing Span [6]  6.7 feet (2.03 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Al Hajar montane woodlands Oman Afrotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe Kazahkstan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Asian northern desert Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian riparian woodlands Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Asian southern desert Turkmenistan stretching, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern Gobi desert steppe China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Gissaro-Alai open woodlands Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Great Lakes Basin desert steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guizhou Plateau broadleaf and mixed forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Indus Valley desert Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kazakh forest steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh semi-desert Kazakhstan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kazakh steppe Russia, Kazakhstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Ordos Plateau steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Qilian Mountains conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sayan Intermontane steppe Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sayan montane conifer forests Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southwestern Arabian foothills savanna Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Oman Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Thar desert India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Trans-Baikal conifer forests Russia, Mongolia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows India, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests India, Pakistan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Addo Elephant National Park II 348463 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Amboseli National Park National Reserve II 99624 Kenya
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Atanasovsko ezero 17814 Bulgaria  
Augrabies Falls National Park II 137301 Northern Cape, South Africa
Azraq Wetland Reserve IV   Jordan
Bontebok National Park II 8315 Western Cape, South Africa
Buxa Tiger Reserve Sanctuary IV 23685 West Bengal, India  
Corbett National Park II 141853 Uttaranchal, India
Desert National Park II 672840 Rajasthan, India  
Etosha National Park II 5699141 Namibia  
Gajner Game Reserve   Rajasthan, India  
Golden Gate Highlands National Park II 28689 Free State, South Africa
Hlane Royal National Park VI 30892 Swaziland  
Kakamega Forest Reseve Forest Reserve 44820 Kenya
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
Karoo National Park II 190300 Western Cape, South Africa
Katavi National Park II 1054210 Tanzania
Khao Sam Roi Yot National Park II 39512 Thailand
Khawr Salalah Reserve IV 3091 Oman  
Kitumbeine Local Authority Forest Reserve   Tanzania      
Kora National Park II 409762 Kenya
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve   Mpumalanga, South Africa  
Lake Manyara National Park II 78767 Tanzania  
Lake Nakuru National Park II 46472 Kenya  
Lapalala Wilderness Nature Reserve 88958 Limpopo, South Africa
Losiminguri Forest Reserve 14815 Tanzania  
Mahale Mountains National Park II 398414 Tanzania
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Marakele National Park II 163507 Limpopo, South Africa
Mlawula Nature Reserve IV 46444 Swaziland  
Mount Everest (Sagarmatha) National Park II 275416 Nepal
Mount Kenya Biosphere Reserve II 146694 Kenya
Mountain Zebra National Park II 60944 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Mujib Nature Reserve Wildlife Reserve IV   Jordan
Nairobi National Park II 16444 Kenya
Nylsvley Nature Reserve IV 7698 Limpopo, South Africa
OROS MAVROVOUNI 91743 Greece  
Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau 207644 Bulgaria  
Queen Elizabeth National Park II 522052 Uganda
Reserve Srebarna Managed Reserve IV 2294 Bulgaria  
Richtersveld National Park II 399195 Northern Cape, South Africa
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Sakar 310629 Bulgaria  
Serengeti-Ngorongoro Biosphere Reserve 5696026 Tanzania  
Table Mountain (Cape Peninsula) National Park II 70141 Western Cape, South Africa
Tal Chhaper Wildlife Sanctuary IV 20318 Rajasthan, India  
Tsitsikamma National Park II 34343 Southern Cape, South Africa  
Wadi Rum Protected Area National Park V   Jordan  
Waterberg Biosphere Reserve 1024427 Limpopo, South Africa  
West Caprivi Game Reserve Game Park VI 1448182 Namibia  
West Coast National Park II 59916 Western Cape, South Africa
Wilderness National Park II 5929 Western Cape, South Africa  

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Ayak-Bestau Hills Kazakhstan A1, A3
Chingiztau Mountains Kazakhstan A1, A3, A4i, A4ii
Chokpak Pass Kazakhstan A4iv
Donyz-Tau cliff faces Kazakhstan A1, A3
Eastern Kazakhstan uplands Kazakhstan A1, A3
Ereymentau Mountains Kazakhstan A1, A3
Irgiz-Turgay Lakes Kazakhstan A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Kalausskiye floods Russia (European) A1, A3, A4i, B1i
Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve Kazakhstan A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System Kazakhstan A1, A4i, A4iii
Lower reaches of the Ashchyozek River Kazakhstan A1, A3
Lower reaches of the Sarysu River Kazakhstan A1, A3
Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river Russia (European) A1, A3, A4i, A4iii, B1i, B2
Manyrak Mountains Kazakhstan A1, A3
Middle reaches of the Sarysu River Kazakhstan A1, A3
Mugodzhary Kazakhstan A1, A3
Naurzum State Nature Reserve Kazakhstan A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Ortau upland massif Kazakhstan A1, A3, A4ii
Plateau Ukok Russia (Central Asian) A1, A3
Sagyz Kazakhstan A1, A3
Sarykopa Lake System Kazakhstan A1, A3, A4i, A4iii
Sources of Akshibai river Russia (European) A1, A3
Tazhinski liman Russia (European) A3, A4iii
Ulytau Mountains Kazakhstan A1, A3
Urda Sands Kazakhstan A1, A3
Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range Kazakhstan A1, A3
Western edge of the Karakoyin and Zhetikonyr Sands Kazakhstan A1, A3
Zhagabulak Forest Kazakhstan A1, A3
Zhagalbayly and Tuyemoynak Hills Kazakhstan A1, A3

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Ochotona dauurica (Daurian Pika)[7]
Phodopus campbelli (Campbell's hamster)[8]
Vulpes rueppellii (Rüppell's Fox)[9]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Bubo bubo (Eurasian Eagle-Owl)3
Buteo hemilasius (Upland Buzzard)1
Falco cherrug (Saker Falcon)2
Falco tinnunculus (Eurasian Kestrel)1
Vulpes corsac (Corsac Fox)1

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Baruscapillaria falconis <Unverified Name>[10]
Ligula intestinalis[10]
Philophthalmus aquilla <Unverified Name>[10]
Philophthalmus lucknowensis <Unverified Name>[10]

Range Map

Cape Peninsula National Park;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Peterson A.P., 2011-09-22, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605 3Meyburg BU, Paillat P, Meyburg C (2003) Migration routes of Steppe Eagles between Asia and Africa: a study by means of satellite telemetry. Condor 105:219–227 4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 5Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 6Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 7The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) is a keystone species for biodiversity on the Tibetan plateau, Andrew T. Smith and J. Marc Foggin, Animal Conservation (1999) 2, 235–240 8Phodopus campbelli, Patricia D. Ross, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 503, pp. 1-7 (1995) 9Vulpes rueppelli, Serge Larivière and Philip J. Seddon, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 678, pp. 1–5 (2001) 10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Important Bird Areas provided by BirdLife International (2010) Important Bird Areas. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2010
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by BirdLife International (2011) Bird species distribution maps of the world.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access