Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Fringillidae > Chloris > Chloris chloris
 

Chloris chloris (European Greenfinch)

Synonyms: Carduelis chloris

Wikipedia Abstract

The European greenfinch, or just greenfinch (Chloris chloris) is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae.This bird is widespread throughout Europe, north Africa and south west Asia. It is mainly resident, but some northernmost populations migrate further south. The greenfinch has also been introduced into both Australia and New Zealand. In Malta it is considered a prestigious song bird which has been trapped for many years.
View Wikipedia Record: Chloris chloris

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
4
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
17
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 3.86409
EDGE Score: 1.58188

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  26 grams
Birth Weight [2]  2.2 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Clutch Size [4]  5
Clutches / Year [3]  2
Incubation [3]  14 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  13 years
Speed [5]  27.29 MPH (12.2 m/s)
Wing Span [5]  10 inches (.25 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe Kazahkstan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Badghyz and Karabil semi-desert Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Tajikistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chatham Island temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Crete Mediterranean forests Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Honshu alpine conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Humid Pampas Argentina Neotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Kamchatka Mountain tundra and forest tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kamchatka-Kurile taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Paropamisus xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sakhalin Island taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Aggtelek Biosphere Reserve National Park II 59233 Hungary
Alsó-Tisza-völgy 88306 Hungary  
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Bakarlaka 82794 Bulgaria  
Batova 94228 Bulgaria  
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
CABO DE GATA-NIJAR 122347 Spain  
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Chausey 203679 France  
Coorong National Park II 121235 South Australia, Australia
DESFILADEROS DEL RÍO MARTÍN 110851 Spain  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Derventski Heights 86150 Bulgaria  
EL TURBÓN Y SIERRA DE SÍS 60101 Spain  
ESTEPAS DE BELCHITE-EL PLANERON-LA LOMAZA 58678 Spain  
Eastern Beskid National Park II 68484 Poland  
Emine 164580 Bulgaria  
Felsõ-kiskunsági szikes puszták és turjánvidék 103542 Hungary  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
HURDES 66675 Spain  
Harsovska Reka 87546 Bulgaria  
Kamchiyska Mountain 219637 Bulgaria  
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kiskunsag Biosphere Reserve II 54598 Hungary  
Kiskunsági szikes tavak és az õrjegi turjánvidék 88335 Hungary  
Kopetdagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 125705 Turkmenistan  
Kotlenska Mountain 245286 Bulgaria  
Kresna Gordge 58059 Bulgaria  
Krivoklatsko Protected Landscape Area V 155267 Czech Republic  
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
Kugitang Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 77308 Turkmenistan  
LLANOS DE ALCANTARA Y BROZAS 126519 Spain  
LOS ALCORNOCALES 414561 Spain  
LOS VALLES 79029 Spain  
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Ludogorie 225827 Bulgaria  
MATARRAÑA - AIGUABARREIX 90747 Spain  
MONFRAGÜE Y LAS DEHESAS DEL ENTORNO 287016 Spain  
MONTES DE ZUERA, CASTEJÓN DE VALDEJASA Y EL CASTELLAR 63037 Spain  
MONTES UNIVERSALES - SIERRA DEL TREMEDAL 79316 Spain  
Mont Ventoux Biosphere Reserve 198594 France  
Monti Peloritani, Dorsale Curcuraci, Antennamare e area marina dello stretto di Messina 69172 Italy    
Mount Aspiring National Park II 473907 South Island, New Zealand
Nikopolsko Plateau 55006 Bulgaria  
Osogovo 59614 Bulgaria  
POSETS - MALADETA 82205 Spain  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parco Naturale Adamello 53676 Italy  
Parco Regionale Orobie Bergamasche 121015 Italy  
Parco Regionale Orobie Valtellinesi 56377 Italy  
Parque Atlantico Mar Chiquita Nature Reserve VI 706059 Cordoba, Argentina  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Picentini 157557 Italy  
Pirin 99722 Bulgaria  
Ponor 77541 Bulgaria  
Prespa National Park II 62043 Greece  
Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau 207644 Bulgaria  
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Rila 200269 Bulgaria  
Risaie della Lomellina 76457 Italy  
RÍO GUADALOPE - MAESTRAZGO 133800 Spain  
RÍO HUERVA Y LAS PLANAS 74804 Spain  
SIERRA DE ALCUBIERRE 103846 Spain  
SIERRA DE GRAZALEMA 131980 Spain  
SIERRA MARIA - LOS VELEZ 55819 Spain  
SIERRA NEVADA 424554 Spain  
SIERRA SUBBETICA 79212 Spain  
SIERRAS DE CAZORLA, SEGURA Y LAS VILLAS 519222 Spain  
SIERRAS DE SANTO DOMINGO Y CABALLERA Y RÍO ONSELLA 88167 Spain  
SIERRAS DE TEJEDA, ALMIJARA Y ALHAMA 100440 Spain  
Saaristomeri 147873 Finland    
Sakar 310629 Bulgaria  
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Sredna Gora 244788 Bulgaria  
Strandzha 285202 Bulgaria  
Suha Reka 63678 Bulgaria  
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Syunt-Khasardagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 105306 Turkmenistan  
Tongariro National Park II 196174 North Island, New Zealand
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Trigrad-Mursalitsa 136717 Bulgaria  
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Tzentralen Balkan 177099 Bulgaria  
VIÑAMALA 62053 Spain  
Vasilyovska Mountain 112364 Bulgaria  
Vitosha 67608 Bulgaria  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Vrachanski Balkan 76306 Bulgaria  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Western Balkan 362801 Bulgaria  
Western Strandzha 132984 Bulgaria  
Zapadni Rodopi 178482 Bulgaria  
Zlatiata 107477 Bulgaria  

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Buzulukski forest Russia (European) A1, B2, B3
Kamchiyska Mountain Bulgaria A1, A4iv, B1iv, B2, B3, C1, C5, C6
Kočevsko-Kolpa Slovenia B2, B3
Racheyski forest Russia (European) A1, B2, B3
River Drava Slovenia A4i, B1i, B2, B3
River Mura Slovenia B2, B3
Strandzha Bulgaria A4iv, B1iv, B2, B3, C5, C6
Triglav National Park Slovenia A3, B2, B3
Western Balkan Bulgaria A1, A3, B2, B3, C1, C6
Zhigulevsk Nature Reserve Russia (European) A1, B2, B3

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Japan Japan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No

Prey / Diet

Barbarea vulgaris (Common Wintergreen)[6]
Chenopodium album (lambsquarters goosefoot)[6]
Fagus sylvatica (European beech)[6]
Filipendula ulmaria (Meadowsweet)[6]
Geranium sylvaticum (woodland geranium)[6]
Lasius niger (Black garden ant)[6]
Picea abies[6]
Ranunculus acris (meadow buttercup)[6]
Rosa canina (Dog Rose)[7]
Rumex oblongifolius (bluntleaf dock)[6]
Sorbus aucuparia (Mountain Ash)[6]
Taraxacum campylodes (Dandelion)[6]
Vicia hirsuta (Hairy Vetch)[6]
Viola arvensis (European field pansy)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)6
Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark)2
Anthocharis cardamines (Orange Tip Butterfly)2
Aphelia paleana (Timothy Tortrix)2
Aphrophora alni (Alder Spittle Bug)2
Apodemus flavicollis (Yellow-necked mouse)3
Apodemus sylvaticus (Old World wood and field mouse)3
Arctia caja (garden tiger moth)5
Autographa gamma (Silver Y Moth)2
Bison bonasus (European bison)2
Biston betularia (peppered moth)2
Caradrina morpheus (Mottled Rustic)2
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)7
Cercopis vulnerata (Black & Red Froghopper)2
Cnephasia asseclana (Flax Tortrix Moth)2
Cnephasia incertana (Light Grey Tortrix Moth)2
Cnephasia stephensiana (Grey Tortrix Moth)4
Colocasia coryli (Nut-tree Tussock)2
Columba oenas (Stock Dove)7
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)7
Cosmia trapezina (Dun-bar)2
Crocallis elinguaria (Scalloped Oak Moth)2
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)2
Deileptenia ribeata (Satin Beauty Moth)2
Episyrphus balteatus (Marmelade Fly)4
Eupeodes luniger2
Fagocyba cruenta2
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)8
Garrulus glandarius (Eurasian Jay)2
Glis glis (fat dormouse)2
Hepialus humuli (Ghost Moth)2
Lacanobia oleracea (Bright-line Brown-Eye Moth)3
Lacanobia thalassina (Pale-shouldered Brocade)2
Linaria cannabina (Common Linnet)7
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)2
Lycaena phlaeas (Small Copper Butterfly)2
Meles meles (European Badger)2
Muscina prolapsa2
Noctua fimbriata (Broad-bordered Yellow Underwing)2
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)2
Parus major (Great Tit)2
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)9
Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow)3
Periparus ater (Coal Tit)3
Phalera bucephala (Buff-tip)2
Philaenus spumarius (meadow froghopper)3
Pieris brassicae (Large White)2
Pieris napi (Green-veined White Butterfly)2
Poecile palustris (Marsh Tit)2
Polia bombycina (Pale Shining Brown)2
Ptilodon capucina (Coxcomb Prominent)2
Pyrgus malvae (Grizzled Skipper)2
Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Eurasian Bullfinch)2
Rhingia campestris2
Sciurus vulgaris (Eurasian red squirrel)2
Scopula floslactata (Cream Wave Moth)2
Sitta europaea (Eurasian Nuthatch)2
Spinus spinus (Eurasian Siskin)4
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian Collared-Dove)2
Streptopelia turtur (European Turtle-Dove)7

Predators

Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)[6]
Falco columbarius (Merlin)[6]
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)[6]
Strix aluco (Tawny Owl)[6]

Providers

Shelter 
Picea abies (Norway spruce)[6]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Baruscapillaria obsignata <Unverified Name>[8]
Callopsylla gemina[9]
Ceratophyllus fringillae[9]
Dasypsyllus gallinulae gallinulae[9]
Hymenolepis naja <Unverified Name>[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Attica Zoological Park S.A.
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
Lotherton Bird Garden
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Moscow Zoological Park
Parc des Oiseaux
Parc Zoologique d'Amiens
Permskii Zoologicheskii Sadchloris
Podkrusnohorsky Zoopark Chomutov
Tallinn Zoo
Trevor Zoo at Millbrook School
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternario
Zoo of Antwerp
Zoobotanico de Jerez
Zoological Garden Praguechloris
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzenchloris

Distribution

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605 3British Trust for Ornithology 4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 5Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 6Ecology of Commanster 7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 9International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access