Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Sturnidae > Cinnyricinclus > Cinnyricinclus leucogaster
 

Cinnyricinclus leucogaster (Violet-backed Starling)

Wikipedia Abstract

The violet-backed starling (Cinnyricinclus leucogaster), also known as the plum-coloured starling or amethyst starling, is a relatively small species of starling in the Sturnidae family. This strongly sexually dimorphic species is found widely in the woodlands and savannah forest edges of mainland sub-Saharan Africa. It is rarely seen on the ground. found in trees and other sources away from the ground.
View Wikipedia Record: Cinnyricinclus leucogaster

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
18
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
37
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 14.2042
EDGE Score: 2.72157

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  44 grams
Clutch Size [2]  3

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Angolan montane forest-grassland mosaic Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Angolan Mopane woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ethiopian montane forests Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guinean montane forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kalahari xeric savanna Botswana, Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Namibian savanna woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Serengeti volcanic grasslands Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Africa bushveld Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Gabon, Congo, Democratic Rep of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Abuko Nature Reserve IV 264 Gambia
Al Wathba Wetland Reserve 1236 Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates      
Amboseli National Park National Reserve II 99624 Kenya
Bamingui-Bangoran Conservation Area National Park II 2783298 Central African Republic  
Banco National Park 6492 Côte d'Ivoire  
Daan Viljoen Game Park II 9924 Namibia  
East Usambara Biosphere Reserve 222395 Tanzania  
Etosha National Park II 5699141 Namibia  
Golden Gate Highlands National Park II 28689 Free State, South Africa
Gombe National Park II 8799 Tanzania
Hlane Royal National Park VI 30892 Swaziland  
Hwange National Park II 3651385 Zimbabwe  
Itala Game Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve II 72822 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Kakamega Forest Reseve Forest Reserve 44820 Kenya
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
Katavi National Park II 1054210 Tanzania
Kenneth Stainbank Nature Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve IV 554 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Kibale National Park II 196202 Uganda
Krantzkloof Nature Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve IV 1452 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve   Mpumalanga, South Africa  
Lake Manyara National Park II 78767 Tanzania  
Lake Nakuru National Park II 46472 Kenya  
Lapalala Wilderness Nature Reserve 88958 Limpopo, South Africa
Liwonde National Park II 116740 Malawi  
Losiminguri Forest Reserve 14815 Tanzania  
Mahale Mountains National Park II 398414 Tanzania
Malindi-Watamu Biosphere Reserve 48433 Kenya  
Malolotja Nature Reserve IV 42044 Swaziland  
Marakele National Park II 163507 Limpopo, South Africa
Minziro Forest Reserve 76954 Tanzania  
Mlawula Nature Reserve IV 46444 Swaziland  
Mont Nimba Strict Nature Reserve Ia 11675 Côte d'Ivoire  
Mount Kulal Biosphere Reserve 1729738 Kenya  
Nairobi National Park II 16444 Kenya
Ndimba Forest Reserve 3102 Tanzania  
New Germany Nature Reserve 272 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
North Park Nature Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve IV 104 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
Palmiet Nature Reserve   Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
Parc National de la Lopé National Park 1227419 Gabon  
Pigeon Valley Nature Reserve 25 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa      
Queen Elizabeth National Park II 522052 Uganda
Roosfontein Nature Reserve 519 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Rubondo National Park II 50330 Tanzania
Serengeti-Ngorongoro Biosphere Reserve 5696026 Tanzania  
Shongweni Resources Reserve 42008 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Silverglen Nature Reserve 566 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
The W Region National Park II 549843 Niger  
Tsavo East National Park II 3232255 Kenya
Umbogavango Nature Reserve 89 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Waterberg Biosphere Reserve 1024427 Limpopo, South Africa  
Weenen Nature Reserve   Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
West Caprivi Game Reserve Game Park VI 1448182 Namibia  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No

Prey / Diet

Bridelia micrantha (Coastal Golden-leaf)[3]
Commiphora schimperi[4]
Ficus glumosa (Mountain fig)[5]
Ficus ingens[5]
Ficus thonningii (Chinese banyan)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)1
Andropadus importunus (Sombre Greenbul)3
Arizelocichla masukuensis (Shelley's Greenbul)1
Arizelocichla milanjensis (Stripe-cheeked Greenbul)1
Arizelocichla tephrolaema (Western Greenbul)1
Baeopogon indicator (Honeyguide Greenbul)1
Buccanodon duchaillui (Yellow-spotted Barbet)1
Bycanistes brevis (Silvery-cheeked Hornbill)1
Bycanistes bucinator (Trumpeter Hornbill)1
Bycanistes subcylindricus (Grey-cheeked Hornbill)1
Cephalophus natalensis (Natal duiker)1
Cercopithecus ascanius (black-cheeked white-nosed monkey)1
Cercopithecus mitis (blue monkey)2
Cercopithecus pogonias (crowned guenon)1
Chlorocichla laetissima (Joyful Greenbul)1
Colobus guereza (Guereza)1
Columba larvata (Lemon Dove)1
Columba livia (Rock Pigeon)1
Coracina caesia (Grey Cuckooshrike)1
Crithagra mozambica (Yellow-fronted Canary)1
Dicrurus adsimilis (Fork-tailed Drongo)1
Eidolon helvum (straw-colored fruit bat)1
Erythrocebus patas (patas monkey)1
Eurillas latirostris (Yellow-whiskered Greenbul)1
Gorilla gorilla (gorilla)1
Gymnobucco bonapartei (Grey-throated Barbet)1
Heliosciurus rufobrachium (red-legged sun squirrel)1
Heterohyrax brucei (Yellow-spotted Rock Hyrax)2
Lamprotornis nitens (Cape Starling)1
Loxodonta africana (African Bush Elephant)1
Lybius bidentatus (Double-toothed Barbet)1
Lybius torquatus (Black-collared Barbet)3
Megalaima mystacophanos (Red-throated Barbet)1
Musophaga rossae (Ross's Turaco)1
Neotragus moschatus (suni)1
Notopholia corrusca (Black-bellied Starling)1
Onychognathus morio (Red-winged Starling)3
Onychognathus walleri (Waller's Starling)1
Oriolus brachyrynchus (Western Oriole)1
Oriolus larvatus (Black-headed Oriole)1
Oriolus oriolus (Eurasian Golden Oriole)1
Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee)3
Parus niger (Southern Black Tit)1
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)1
Phyllastrephus cabanisi (Cabanis's Greenbul)1
Phyllastrephus hypochloris (Toro Olive Greenbul)1
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)1
Ploceus bicolor (Dark-backed Weaver)1
Pogoniulus bilineatus (Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird)1
Pogoniulus pusillus (Red-fronted Tinkerbird)1
Psittacula krameri (Rose-ringed Parakeet)1
Pycnonotus barbatus (Common Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus cafer (Red-vented Bulbul)1
Pycnonotus goiavier (Yellow-vented Bulbul)1
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette)1
Rousettus amplexicaudatus (Geoffroy's rousette)1
Stelgidillas gracilirostris (Slender-billed Greenbul)1
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)1
Sylvicapra grimmia (bush duiker)1
Tauraco corythaix (Knysna Turaco)1
Tauraco livingstonii (Livingstone's Turaco)1
Tauraco schalowi (Schalow's Turaco)2
Tersina viridis (Swallow Tanager)1
Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris (Mocking Cliff Chat)1
Trachylaemus purpuratus (yellow-billed barbet)1
Treron calvus (African Green Pigeon)4
Turdoides sharpei (Black-lored Babbler)1
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)1
Turdus olivaceus (Olive Thrush)1
Turdus pallidus (Pale Thrush)1
Turdus pelios (African Thrush)1
Turtur tympanistria (Tambourine Dove)1
Zosterops pallidus (Cape White-eye)1
Zosterops senegalensis (African Yellow White-eye)2

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Amazon World
Assiniboine Park Zoo
Birmingham Zoo
 verreauxii
Blackbrook Zoological Park
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Chicago Zoological Park
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
Copenhagen Zoo
Dallas Zooverreauxii
Denver Zoological Gardens
Disney's Animal Kingdom
Hong Kong Zool. & Botanical Gardens
Honolulu Zoo
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Inokashira Park Zoo
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore
Lee Richardson Zoo
Leeds Castle Enterprises Ltd.
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquarium
Miami Metrozooleucogaster
Montecasino Bird Gardens
North Carolina Zoological Park
North of England Zoological Society
Ocean Park Corporation
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Oregon Zoo
Paradise Park Wildlife Sanctuary
Parc des Oiseaux
Potawatomi Zoo
Randers Regnskov
Rome Zoo-Fondazione Bioparco di Roma
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquar
San Diego Wild Animal Park
 verreauxii
San Diego Zooverreauxii
Sedgwick County Zoo
Tierpark Hagenbeck GmbH
Toledo Zoological Gardens
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Umgeni River Bird Park
Vogelpark (Birdpark) Avifauna
Wilhelma Zoo
Zoo Atlanta
 verreauxii
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternario
Zoo Dvur Kralove, a.s.
Zoo Krefeld GmbH
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoological Society of London
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzen
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbH
Zoologischer Garten Frankfurt

Distribution

Tsavo National Park;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Fry, CH, S. Keith, and EK Urban. 2000. The birds of Africa. Volume VI. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA 2Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 3Specialization and interaction strength in a tropical plant-frugivore network differ among forest strata, Matthias Schleuning, Nico Blüthgen, Martina Flörchinger, Julius Braun, H. Martin Schaefer, and Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Ecology, in press. 4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 5"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access