Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Muscicapidae > Erithacus > Erithacus rubecula
 

Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)

Wikipedia Abstract

The European robin (Erithacus rubecula), most commonly known in Anglophone Europe simply as the robin, is a small insectivorous passerine bird, specifically a chat, that was formerly classed as a member of the thrush family (Turdidae), but is now considered to be an Old World flycatcher. Around 12.5–14.0 cm (5.0–5.5 in) in length, the male and female are similar in colouration, with an orange breast and face lined with grey, brown upperparts and a whitish belly.
View Wikipedia Record: Erithacus rubecula

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
18
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
36
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 13.9
EDGE Score: 2.70136

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  17 grams
Birth Weight [2]  2.4 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Piscivore, Frugivore, Granivore
Diet - Ectothermic [3]  10 %
Diet - Fish [3]  10 %
Diet - Fruit [3]  20 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  40 %
Diet - Scavenger [3]  10 %
Diet - Seeds [3]  10 %
Forages - Understory [3]  50 %
Forages - Ground [3]  50 %
Clutch Size [5]  5
Clutches / Year [4]  2
Incubation [4]  15 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  17 years
Wing Span [4]  8 inches (.21 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Azores temperate mixed forests Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Crete Mediterranean forests Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Hokkaido montane conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Honshu alpine conifer forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests  
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nihonkai evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Nihonkai montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sakhalin Island taiga Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Taiheiyo evergreen forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests Japan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alsó-Tisza-völgy 88306 Hungary  
Alte Valli Stura e Maira 103806 Italy  
Amudarya Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 152861 Lebap, Turkmenistan  
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Badghyz Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 215164 Turkmenistan  
Batova 94228 Bulgaria  
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU KAI EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PET 109185 Greece  
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU, EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PETALA 87747 Greece  
DESFILADEROS DEL RÍO MARTÍN 110851 Spain  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
ETHNIKO THALASSIO PARKO ALONNISOU - VOREION SPORADON, ANATOLIKI SKOPELOS 615652 Greece      
Emine 164580 Bulgaria  
Felsõ-kiskunsági szikes puszták és turjánvidék 103542 Hungary  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Harsovska Reka 87546 Bulgaria  
Itäisen Suomenlahden saaristo ja vedet 236302 Finland    
KARLA - MAVROVOUNI - KEFALOVRYSO VELESTINOU - NEOCHORI 107331 Greece  
KOILADA ACHELOOU KAI ORI VALTOU 115492 Greece  
KOILADA KAI EKVOLES SPERCHEIOU - MALIAKOS KOLPOS 117491 Greece  
KORYFES OROUS VORA 99917 Greece  
Kamchiyska Mountain 219637 Bulgaria  
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kiskunsági szikes tavak és az õrjegi turjánvidék 88335 Hungary  
Kopetdagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 125705 Turkmenistan  
Kotlenska Mountain 245286 Bulgaria  
Krivoklatsko Protected Landscape Area V 155267 Czech Republic  
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
LA SERENA Y SIERRAS PERIFÉRICAS 379806 Spain  
LEFKA ORI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 131864 Greece  
LIMNES KORONEIAS - VOLVIS, STENA RENTINAS KAI EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 399400 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
LLANOS DE ALCANTARA Y BROZAS 126519 Spain  
LOS ALCORNOCALES 414561 Spain  
Lagorai 114140 Italy  
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Ludogorie 225827 Bulgaria  
MATARRAÑA - AIGUABARREIX 90747 Spain  
MONFRAGÜE Y LAS DEHESAS DEL ENTORNO 287016 Spain  
Merenkurkun saaristo 316695 Finland    
Mont Ventoux Biosphere Reserve 198594 France  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Northern Karelian Biosphere Reserve 864869 Finland  
OREINOS EVROS - KOILADA DEREIOU 120853 Greece  
ORI ANATOLIKIS LAKONIAS 92829 Greece  
OROS MAVROVOUNI 91743 Greece  
OROS TAYGETOS - LAGKADA TRYPIS 120553 Greece  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
PERIOCHI THESSALIKOU KAMPOU 236223 Greece  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio National Park V 333737 Italy
Parco Regionale Orobie Bergamasche 121015 Italy  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Picentini 157557 Italy  
Pirin 99722 Bulgaria  
Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau 207644 Bulgaria  
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Repetek Biosphere Reserve 102089 Turkmenistan  
Reserva de Grazalema Nature Park V 126034 Spain  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Rila 200269 Bulgaria  
RÍO GUADALOPE - MAESTRAZGO 133800 Spain  
SIERRA DE ALCUBIERRE 103846 Spain  
SIERRA DE ARACENA Y PICOS DE AROCHE 461592 Spain  
SIERRA DE GRAZALEMA 131980 Spain  
SIERRA DE LAS VILLUERCAS Y VALLE DEL GUADARRANQUE 188630 Spain  
SIERRA NEVADA 424554 Spain  
SIERRAS DE CAZORLA, SEGURA Y LAS VILLAS 519222 Spain  
SIERRAS DE SANTO DOMINGO Y CABALLERA Y RÍO ONSELLA 88167 Spain  
SIERRAS DE TEJEDA, ALMIJARA Y ALHAMA 100440 Spain  
Saaristomeri 147873 Finland    
Sakar 310629 Bulgaria  
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Sredna Gora 244788 Bulgaria  
Strandzha 285202 Bulgaria  
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Syunt-Khasardagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 105306 Turkmenistan  
Teberdinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 210198 Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Trigrad-Mursalitsa 136717 Bulgaria  
Tzentralen Balkan 177099 Bulgaria  
VOUNA EVROU 104705 Greece  
Vasilyovska Mountain 112364 Bulgaria  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Western Balkan 362801 Bulgaria  
Western Strandzha 132984 Bulgaria  
Zapadni Rodopi 178482 Bulgaria  
Zlatiata 107477 Bulgaria  

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Central Balkan Bulgaria A1, A3, B2, B3, C1, C6
Foreste Casentinesi Italy B2, B3, C6
Pirin Bulgaria A3, B2, B3, C6
Rila Bulgaria A3, B2, B3, C6
Sredna Gora Bulgaria A1, B2, B3, C1, C6
Western Rhodopes Bulgaria B3, C6

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Japan Japan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No

Emblem of

United Kingdom

Prey / Diet

Apis mellifera (honey bee)[6]
Arbutus unedo (strawberry tree)[7]
Cornus sanguinea (bloodtwig dogwood)[8]
Crataegus monogyna (Common Hawthorn)[9]
Cryphoeca silvicola[6]
Daphne gnidium (flax-leaved daphne)[7]
Euonymus europaeus (European spindletree)[10]
Frangula alnus subsp. alnus (Glossy Buckthorn)[9]
Hedera helix (Algerian ivy)[11]
Ilex aquifolium (English holly)[11]
Ligustrum vulgare (European privet)[11]
Lonicera implexa[12]
Malus pumila (Common apple)[9]
Malus sylvestris (Crab Apple)[11]
Nanogona polydesmoides[6]
Phillyrea angustifolia[7]
Phillyrea latifolia[7]
Pistacia lentiscus (mastic tree)[7]
Pistacia terebinthus (Cyprus turpentine)[12]
Polydesmus angustus (Common Flat-backed Millipede)[6]
Prunus domestica (plum)[9]
Prunus padus (Bird Cherry)[11]
Prunus spinosa (Blackthorn)[11]
Rhamnus alaternus (Italian Buckthorn)[13]
Rubia peregrina (Wild Madder)[7]
Rubus ulmifolius (elmleaf blackberry)[7]
Sambucus nigra (European black elderberry)[11]
Sambucus racemosa (red elderberry)[9]
Smilax aspera (Sarsaparilla)[7]
Solanum dulcamara (deadly nightshade)[11]
Sorbus aucuparia (Mountain Ash)[9]
Stenurella melanura[6]
Taxus baccata (Common yew)[11]
Viburnum lantana (wayfaring tree)[11]
Viburnum opulus (European cranberrybush)[14]
Viburnum rigidum (laurustinus)[7]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Abraxas grossulariata (Magpie Moth)5
Acasis viretata5
Acherontia atropos (Death's-head hawk moth)5
Acronicta psi (Grey Dagger Moth)3
Aegithalos caudatus (Long-tailed Bushtit)4
Alsophila aescularia (March Moth)3
Amphipyra pyramidea3
Calliteara pudibunda (Pale Tussock)3
Carcina quercana3
Celastrina argiolus (Holly Blue Butterfly)4
Cervus elaphus (wapiti or elk)3
Chloroclysta siterata (Red-green Carpet)3
Choristoneura hebenstreitella (Mountain-ash tortricid)3
Clepsis consimilana3
Colocasia coryli (Nut-tree Tussock)3
Colotois pennaria (Feathered Thorn)3
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)3
Conistra rubiginea (Dotted Chestnut)3
Conistra vaccinii (Chestnut)3
Corvus corone (Carrion Crow)3
Cosmia trapezina (Dun-bar)4
Crocallis elinguaria (Scalloped Oak Moth)4
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)11
Diloba caeruleocephala3
Ditula angustiorana (Red-barred Tortrix)5
Eriogaster lanestris (Small Eggar)4
Eupithecia exiguata (Mottled Pug)3
Euplexia lucipara (Small Angle Shades)3
Eupsilia transversa (Satellite)4
Ficedula hypoleuca (European Pied Flycatcher)11
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)4
Lasiocampa quercus (Oak Eggar)4
Laspeyria flexula (Beautiful Hook-tip)3
Lithophane hepatica5
Lomographa temerata (Clouded Silver)3
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)6
Lycia hirtaria (Brindled Beauty Moth)3
Melanchra persicariae (Dot Moth)4
Naenia typica (Gothic)4
Noctua fimbriata (Broad-bordered Yellow Underwing)3
Nola cucullatella (Short-cloaked Moth)3
Odontopera bidentata (Scalloped Hazel)3
Opisthograptis luteolata (Brimstone Moth)4
Ourapteryx sambucaria (Swallow-tailed Moth)5
Parus major (Great Tit)7
Peribatodes rhomboidaria (Willow Beauty)3
Periparus ater (Coal Tit)5
Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Common Redstart)3
Plemyria rubiginata (Blue-bordered Carpet)3
Pogonocherus hispidulus3
Prunella modularis (Dunnock)3
Pyrrhalta viburni (viburnum leaf beetle)3
Saturnia pavonia (Emperor moth)5
Smerinthus ocellata4
Sphinx ligustri (Sphinx moth)5
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)6
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)19
Sylvia borin (Garden Warbler)10
Sylvia cantillans (Subalpine Warbler)4
Sylvia communis (Common Whitethroat)7
Sylvia melanocephala (Sardinian Warbler)12
Trichiura crataegi (Pale Eggar)3
Turdus iliacus (Redwing)9
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)22
Turdus philomelos (Song Thrush)16
Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare)5
Turdus viscivorus (Mistle Thrush)7
Xylena exsoleta (Sword-grass)3
Yponomeuta padella (Common Hawthorn Ermel Moth)3
Zeuzera pyrina (leopard moth)3

Predators

Accipiter nisus (Eurasian Sparrowhawk)[6]
Aegolius funereus (Boreal Owl)[9]
Falco eleonorae (Eleonora's Falcon)[15]
Nyctalus lasiopterus (giant noctule)[16]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acuaria subula <Unverified Name>[17]
Apororhynchus silesiacus[17]
Aprocta cylindrica <Unverified Name>[17]
Baruscapillaria ovopunctata <Unverified Name>[17]
Birovilepis sinensis <Unverified Name>[17]
Birovilepis sobolevi <Unverified Name>[17]
Biuterina cordifera <Unverified Name>[17]
Brachydistomum ventricosum <Unverified Name>[17]
Brachylecithum mosquense <Unverified Name>[17]
Brachylecithum ventricosum <Unverified Name>[17]
Capillaria ovopunctata <Unverified Name>[17]
Centrorhynchus fasciatus[17]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[18]
Ceratophyllus garei[18]
Ceratophyllus pullatus[18]
Ceratophyllus sciurorum sciurorum <Unverified Name>[18]
Collyriclum faba <Unverified Name>[17]
Dasypsyllus gallinulae gallinulae[18]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[17]
Leucochloridium macrostoma <Unverified Name>[17]
Leucochloridium phragmitophila <Unverified Name>[17]
Mosesia monedulae <Unverified Name>[17]
Paricterotaenia mariae <Unverified Name>[17]
Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus[17]
Plagiorhynchus gracilis[17]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[17]
Spasskyterina trianguloides <Unverified Name>[17]
Sphaerirostris lancea[17]
Spiniglans mariae <Unverified Name>[17]
Urotocus rossitensis <Unverified Name>[17]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH

Distribution

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4British Trust for Ornithology
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6Ecology of Commanster
7A STUDY OF AVIAN FRUGIVORES, BIRD-DISPERSED PLANTS, AND THElR INTERACTION IN MEDITERRANEAN SCRUBLANDS, CARLOS M. HERRERA, Ecological Monographs, 54(1), 1984, pp. 1-23
8Frugivorous diet of autumn migrant Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca: a review and new data, A. Hernández, Butll. GCA 16: 53-60, 1999
9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
10VARIATIONS IN SPINDLE EUONYMUS EUROPAEUS CONSUMPTION BY FRUGIVOROUS BIRDS DURING THE FRUITING SEASON, Ángel HERNÁNDEZ, Ardeola 50(2), 2003, 171-180
11Birds and berries: a study of an ecological interaction. Calton, Great Britain, Snow B.K., Snow D.W., 1988, T & AD Poyser. 268 p.
12Recruitment of a Mast-Fruiting, Bird-Dispersed Tree: Bridging Frugivore Activity and Seedling Establishment, Carlos M. Herrera, Pedro Jordano, Luis López-Soria, Juan A. Amat, Ecological Monographs, 64(3), 1994, pp. 315-344
13Exclusive frugivory and seed dispersal of Rhamnus alaternus in the bird breeding season, Josep M. Bas, Pere Pons and Crisanto Gómez, Plant Ecology (2005)
14Birds and guelder rose Viburnum opulus: selective consumption and dispersal via regurgitation of small-sized fruits and seeds, Ángel Hernández, Plant Ecol (2009) 203:111–122
15STATUS, DISTRIBUTION, AND DIET OF ELEONORA’S FALCON (FALCO ELEONORAE) IN THE CANARY ISLANDS, Leandro De León, Beneharo Rodríguez, Aurelio Martín, Manuel Nogales, Jesús Alonso, and Carlos Izquierdo, Journal of Raptor Research 41(4):331-336 2007
16Carnivory in the greater noctule bat (Nyctalus lasiopterus) in Italy, G Dondini, S Vergari, J. Zool. Lond. (2000) 251, 233-236
17Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
18International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
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