Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Pycnonotidae > Hemixos > Hemixos flavala
 

Hemixos flavala (Ashy Bulbul)

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
11
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
30
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.93765
EDGE Score: 2.29633

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  33 grams
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Nectarivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  40 %
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  40 %
Diet - Nectar [2]  10 %
Diet - Plants [2]  10 %
Forages - Canopy [2]  20 %
Forages - Mid-High [2]  60 %
Forages - Understory [2]  20 %
Clutch Size [3]  3

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Borneo lowland rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo montane rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo peat swamp forests Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests Myanmar, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kinabalu montane alpine meadows Malaysia Indo-Malayan Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Luang Prabang montane rain forests Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests India, Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests China, India, Bhutan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Annamites rain forests Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle subtropical forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran peat swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundaland heath forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Ailaoshan Nature Reserve V 332544 Yunnan, China  
Betung Kerihun National Park II 1945086 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park II 836773 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Bukit Timah Nature Reserve II 411 Singapore
Bung Kroeng Kavia Non-hunting Area   Thailand      
Buxa Tiger Reserve Sanctuary IV 23685 West Bengal, India  
Chae Son National Park II 194441 Thailand
Corbett National Park II 141853 Uttaranchal, India
Dinghushan Nature Reserve V 2320 Guangdong, China  
Doi Ang Khang Nature Reserve   Thailand      
Doi Chiang Dao Wildlife Sanctuary   Thailand      
Doi Inthanon National Park II 115326 Thailand  
Doi Khun Tan National Park II 61680 Thailand  
Doi Luang National Park II 325736 Thailand  
Doi Pha Chang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 144177 Thailand  
Doi Pha Hom Pok Watershed Area National Park II 133848 Thailand  
Doi Phu Kha National Park II 472119 Thailand  
Doi Suthep-pui National Park II 70007 Thailand  
Fujian Wuyishan Nature Reserve V 206754 Fujian, China  
Gunung Leuser National Park II 2203368 Sumatra, Indonesia
Gunung Niut Wildlife Reserve Nature Reserve IV 409109 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 699629 Thailand  
Kaeng Krachan National Park II 753452 Thailand
Kerinci Seblat National Park II 3463483 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Khao Banthat Wildlife Sanctuary IV 309428 Thailand  
Khao Luang National Park II 143331 Thailand
Khao Yai National Park II 542694 Thailand
Khlong Lan National Park II 104466 Thailand
Krau Wildlife Reserve IV 149823 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Kutai National Park II 560076 East Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Lum Nam Pai Wildlife Sanctuary IV 298416 Thailand  
Mae Sa-Kog Ma Reserve   Thailand      
Mae Wong National Park II 221459 Thailand
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Maolan Biosphere Reserve V 79467 Guizhou, China  
Nam Ha National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 539941 Laos  
Nam Nao National Park II 240993 Thailand
Namdapha National Park II   Arunachal Pradesh, India
Namtok Yong National Park II 52286 Thailand
Om Koi Wildlife Sanctuary IV 299357 Thailand  
Phu Hin Rong Kla National Park II 75377 Thailand
Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary IV 391278 Thailand  
Phu Kradung National Park II 63197 Thailand
Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 227671 Thailand  
Pu Mat National Park IV 239739 Viet Nam  
Salak Phra Wildlife Sanctuary IV 241622 Thailand  
Sungai Lalang Forest Reserve Virgin Jungle Reserve Ia   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Tabin Wildlife Reserve IV 275051 Sabah, Malaysia  
Thaleban National Park Marine National Park II 49715 Thailand
Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary IV 918234 Thailand  
Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 45094 Thailand  
Umphang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 619152 Thailand  
Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve V 567531 Yunnan, China  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No

Prey / Diet

Ficus binnendykii[4]
Ficus sumatrana[4]
Ficus thonningii (Chinese banyan)[4]
Ficus virens[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alophoixus bres (Grey-cheeked Bulbul)2
Alophoixus finschii (Finsch's Bulbul)2
Alophoixus pallidus (Puff-throated Bulbul)2
Alophoixus phaeocephalus (Yellow-bellied Bulbul)3
Anorrhinus galeritus (Bushy-crested Hornbill)2
Anthracoceros malayanus (Black Hornbill)3
Arctictis binturong (Binturong)2
Buceros rhinoceros (Rhinoceros Hornbill)3
Callosciurus erythraeus (Pallas's squirrel)2
Callosciurus nigrovittatus (black-striped squirrel)2
Callosciurus prevostii (Prevost's squirrel)3
Caloramphus fuliginosus (Brown Barbet)4
Calyptomena viridis (Green Broadbill)4
Chloropsis cochinchinensis (Blue-winged Leafbird)4
Chloropsis cyanopogon (Lesser Green Leafbird)4
Chloropsis sonnerati (Greater Green Leafbird)4
Copsychus saularis (Oriental Magpie-Robin)2
Dicaeum chrysorrheum (Yellow-vented Flowerpecker)3
Ducula bicolor (Pied Imperial Pigeon)2
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)3
Garrulax perspicillatus (Masked Laughingthrush)2
Gracula religiosa (Hill Myna)2
Gracupica nigricollis (Black-collared Starling)2
Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)3
Iole olivacea (Buff-vented Bulbul)4
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)4
Ixos malaccensis (Streaked Bulbul)2
Loriculus galgulus (Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot)2
Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque)2
Megalaima australis (Blue-eared Barbet)4
Megalaima chrysopogon (Golden-whiskered Barbet)4
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)2
Megalaima henricii (Yellow-crowned Barbet)4
Megalaima mystacophanos (Red-throated Barbet)4
Megalaima rafflesii (Red-crowned Barbet)3
Megalaima zeylanica (Brown-headed Barbet)2
Oriolus xanthornus (Black-hooded Oriole)2
Parus major (Great Tit)2
Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow)2
Pericrocotus igneus (Fiery Minivet)2
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)4
Prionochilus maculatus (Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker)2
Prionochilus percussus (Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker)2
Pycnonotus atriceps (Black-headed Bulbul)4
Pycnonotus aurigaster (Sooty-headed Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus brunneus (Asian Red-eyed Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus cyaniventris (Grey-bellied Bulbul)4
Pycnonotus erythropthalmos (Spectacled Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus eutilotus (Puff-backed Bulbul)4
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus melanicterus (Black-crested Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus simplex (Cream-vented Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus sinensis (Light-vented Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus squamatus (Scaly-breasted Bulbul)3
Ratufa bicolor (black giant squirrel)2
Spodiopsar sericeus (Red-billed Starling)2
Streptopelia chinensis (Spotted Dove)2
Symphalangus syndactylus (siamang)3
Trachypithecus francoisi (François's leaf monkey)2
Trachypithecus obscurus (dusky leaf monkey)2
Treron capellei (Large Green Pigeon)2
Treron curvirostra (Thick-billed Green Pigeon)4
Treron olax (Little Green Pigeon)2
Trichoglossus haematodus (Coconut Lorikeet)2
Turdus hortulorum (Grey-backed Thrush)2
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)2
Turdus pallidus (Pale Thrush)2
Zosterops japonicus (Japanese White-eye)2

Distribution

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1McClure, H. E. 1964. Avian bionomics in Malaya: 1. The avifauna above 5000 feet altitude at Mount Brinchang, Pahang. Bird-Banding 35:141-183.
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
4"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access