Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Sturnidae > Onychognathus > Onychognathus morio
 

Onychognathus morio (Red-winged Starling)

Wikipedia Abstract

The red-winged starling (Onychognathus morio) is a bird of the starling family Sturnidae native to eastern Africa from Ethiopia to the Cape in South Africa. It is known in Afrikaans as the rooivlerkspreeu.
View Wikipedia Record: Onychognathus morio

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
10
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
28
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.04333
EDGE Score: 2.20203

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  133 grams
Birth Weight [2]  9.4 grams
Clutch Size [3]  3

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Albany thickets South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East African montane forests Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Arc forests Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Mozambique Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Zimbabwe montane forest-grassland mosaic Zimbabwe, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian montane forests Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Ethiopia, Eritrea Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian montane moorlands Ethiopia Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Highveld grasslands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lowland fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Malawi montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Africa bushveld Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Rift montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Addo Elephant National Park II 348463 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Amboseli National Park National Reserve II 99624 Kenya
Augrabies Falls National Park II 137301 Northern Cape, South Africa
Bontebok National Park II 8315 Western Cape, South Africa
Chome Catchment Forest Reserve IV 34897 Tanzania  
East Usambara Biosphere Reserve 222395 Tanzania  
Golden Gate Highlands National Park II 28689 Free State, South Africa
Hlane Royal National Park VI 30892 Swaziland  
Hwange National Park II 3651385 Zimbabwe  
Itala Game Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve II 72822 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Karoo National Park II 190300 Western Cape, South Africa
Katavi National Park II 1054210 Tanzania
Kenneth Stainbank Nature Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve IV 554 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve II 256073 Western Cape, South Africa  
Krantzkloof Nature Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve IV 1452 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve   Mpumalanga, South Africa  
Lake Manyara National Park II 78767 Tanzania  
Lake Nakuru National Park II 46472 Kenya  
Lapalala Wilderness Nature Reserve 88958 Limpopo, South Africa
Mahale Mountains National Park II 398414 Tanzania
Malolotja Nature Reserve IV 42044 Swaziland  
Marakele National Park II 163507 Limpopo, South Africa
Mariannwood Nature Reserve   South Africa      
Mlawula Nature Reserve IV 46444 Swaziland  
Monduli Forest Reserve 21687 Tanzania  
Mount Kulal Biosphere Reserve 1729738 Kenya  
Mount Mulanje Forest Reserve 144452 Malawi  
Mountain Zebra National Park II 60944 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Nairobi National Park II 16444 Kenya
New Germany Nature Reserve 272 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
North Park Nature Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve IV 104 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
Northern Works   South Africa      
Nylsvley Nature Reserve IV 7698 Limpopo, South Africa
Palmiet Nature Reserve   Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
Pigeon Valley Nature Reserve 25 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa      
Richtersveld National Park II 399195 Northern Cape, South Africa
Roosfontein Nature Reserve 519 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Serengeti-Ngorongoro Biosphere Reserve 5696026 Tanzania  
Shongweni Resources Reserve 42008 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Silverglen Nature Reserve 566 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Table Mountain (Cape Peninsula) National Park II 70141 Western Cape, South Africa
Tsavo East National Park II 3232255 Kenya
Tsitsikamma National Park II 34343 Southern Cape, South Africa  
Uluguru Forest Reserves   Tanzania      
Umbogavango Nature Reserve 89 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Umgeni River Provincial Nature Reserve 2372 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Virginia Bush Nature Reserve 94 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Waterberg Biosphere Reserve 1024427 Limpopo, South Africa  
Weenen Nature Reserve   Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
West Coast National Park II 59916 Western Cape, South Africa
Wilderness National Park II 5929 Western Cape, South Africa  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Cape Floristic Region South Africa No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa No

Prey / Diet

Ficus abutilifolia (Large-leaved Rock Fig)[4]
Ficus elastica (indian rubber fig)[4]
Ficus glumosa (Mountain fig)[4]
Ficus ingens[4]
Ficus tettensis (Small-Ieaved Rock Fig)[4]
Ficus thonningii (Chinese banyan)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)1
Andropadus importunus (Sombre Greenbul)3
Arizelocichla milanjensis (Stripe-cheeked Greenbul)1
Arizelocichla tephrolaema (Western Greenbul)1
Bycanistes brevis (Silvery-cheeked Hornbill)1
Bycanistes bucinator (Trumpeter Hornbill)1
Cercopithecus mitis (blue monkey)1
Cercopithecus pogonias (crowned guenon)1
Cinnyricinclus leucogaster (Violet-backed Starling)3
Columba larvata (Lemon Dove)1
Columba livia (Rock Pigeon)1
Coracina caesia (Grey Cuckooshrike)1
Dicrurus adsimilis (Fork-tailed Drongo)1
Eidolon helvum (straw-colored fruit bat)1
Erythrocebus patas (patas monkey)1
Gorilla gorilla (gorilla)1
Heterohyrax brucei (Yellow-spotted Rock Hyrax)2
Lamprotornis nitens (Cape Starling)1
Lybius torquatus (Black-collared Barbet)5
Megalaima mystacophanos (Red-throated Barbet)1
Notopholia corrusca (Black-bellied Starling)1
Onychognathus nabouroup (Pale-winged Starling)1
Onychognathus walleri (Waller's Starling)1
Oriolus larvatus (Black-headed Oriole)1
Oriolus oriolus (Eurasian Golden Oriole)1
Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee)4
Paraxerus cepapi (Smith's bush squirrel)1
Parus niger (Southern Black Tit)1
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)1
Pica pica (Eurasian Magpie)1
Platysaurus attenboroughi (Cape Flat Lizard)1
Pogoniulus pusillus (Red-fronted Tinkerbird)1
Procavia capensis (Rock Hyrax)1
Psittacula krameri (Rose-ringed Parakeet)1
Pycnonotus barbatus (Common Bulbul)1
Pycnonotus nigricans (African Red-eyed Bulbul)1
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette)1
Rousettus amplexicaudatus (Geoffroy's rousette)1
Tauraco corythaix (Knysna Turaco)1
Tauraco livingstonii (Livingstone's Turaco)1
Tauraco porphyreolophus (Purple-crested Turaco)1
Tauraco schalowi (Schalow's Turaco)2
Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris (Mocking Cliff Chat)1
Treron calvus (African Green Pigeon)3
Turdus olivaceus (Olive Thrush)1
Zosterops pallidus (Cape White-eye)1
Zosterops senegalensis (African Yellow White-eye)1

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Birdland Park & Gardens
Lotherton Bird Garden
Montecasino Bird Gardens
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africa
Oceanario de Lisboa
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Zoological Garden Prague
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzen

Distribution

Cape Peninsula National Park; Tsavo National Park;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Herholdt, JJ 1988. Bird weights from the Orange Free State. Part I: Non-passerines and Part II: Passerines. Safring News 17: 3–14 and 43–57 2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605 3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 4"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access