Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Oriolidae > Oriolus > Oriolus oriolus
 

Oriolus oriolus (Eurasian Golden Oriole)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Eurasian golden oriole or simply golden oriole (Oriolus oriolus) is the only member of the oriole family of passerine birds breeding in Northern Hemisphere temperate regions. It is a summer migrant in Europe and western Asia and spends the winter season in central and southern Africa.Golden orioles have an extremely large range with large populations that are apparently stable. Therefore, they are evaluated as least concern by BirdLife International.
View Wikipedia Record: Oriolus oriolus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
7
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
24
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.28261
EDGE Score: 1.98549

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  79 grams
Birth Weight [2]  7.3 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Clutch Size [4]  4
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Incubation [3]  16 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  15 years
Migration [5]  Intercontinental
Wing Span [3]  18 inches (.46 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe Kazahkstan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Albany thickets South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Albertine Rift montane forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi,Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Angolan montane forest-grassland mosaic Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Angolan Mopane woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Badghyz and Karabil semi-desert Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Tajikistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caspian lowland desert Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central African mangroves Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial, Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Mangroves    
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central Congolian lowland forests Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East Afghan montane conifer forests Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
East Deccan dry-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Arc forests Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Gobi desert steppe China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Eastern Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Mozambique Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Zimbabwe montane forest-grassland mosaic Zimbabwe, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Etosha Pan halophytics Namibia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Goadavari-Krishna mangroves India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Highveld grasslands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Himalayan subtropical pine forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Indus Valley desert Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kalahari xeric savanna Botswana, Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kaokoveld desert Namibia, Angola Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe Pakistan, China, Afghanistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Knysna-Amatole montane forests South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lowland fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Malabar Coast moist forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Namibian savanna woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwestern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows China, Pakistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Orissa semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Paropamisus xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Malawi montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Africa bushveld Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Rift montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sulaiman Range alpine meadows Afghanistan, Pakistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Thar desert India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Gabon, Congo, Democratic Rep of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows India, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests India, Pakistan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Western Zambezian grasslands Angola, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian Cryptosepalum dry forests Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Zambezian flooded grasslands Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian halophytics Mozambique, Botswana Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
ANTICHASIA ORI KAI METEORA 178032 Greece  
Addo Elephant National Park II 348463 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Amudarya Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 152861 Lebap, Turkmenistan  
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Badghyz Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 215164 Turkmenistan  
Bamingui-Bangoran Conservation Area National Park II 2783298 Central African Republic  
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Caldeirão 116847 Portugal  
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Castro Verde 210891 Portugal  
Chumbi-Surla Wildlife Sanctuary IV 137833 Pakistan  
Corbett National Park II 141853 Uttaranchal, India
DEHESAS DE JEREZ 118651 Spain  
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU KAI EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PET 109185 Greece  
DESFILADEROS DEL RÍO MARTÍN 110851 Spain  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve 1433211 Romania
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Douro Internacional e Vale do Águeda 125502 Portugal  
ETHNIKO THALASSIO PARKO ALONNISOU - VOREION SPORADON, ANATOLIKI SKOPELOS 615652 Greece      
Etosha National Park II 5699141 Namibia  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
HOCES DEL ALTO EBRO Y RUDRÓN 127403 Spain  
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
Hwange National Park II 3651385 Zimbabwe  
KOILADA ACHELOOU KAI ORI VALTOU 115492 Greece  
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
Kanha Tiger Reserve National Park II 223971 Madhya Pradesh, India
Kaplankyr Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 1293994 Turkmenistan  
Karoo National Park II 190300 Western Cape, South Africa
Katavi National Park II 1054210 Tanzania
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kopetdagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 125705 Turkmenistan  
Korup National Park II 322100 Cameroon
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Kudremukh National Park II 202772 Karnataka, India  
Kugti Sanctuary IV 126362 Himachal Pradesh, India  
LA SERENA Y SIERRAS PERIFÉRICAS 379806 Spain  
LEFKA ORI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 131864 Greece  
LIMNES KORONEIAS - VOLVIS, STENA RENTINAS KAI EVRYTERI PERIOCHI 399400 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
LLANOS DE ALCANTARA Y BROZAS 126519 Spain  
LOS ALCORNOCALES 414561 Spain  
Liwonde National Park II 116740 Malawi  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
MONFRAGÜE Y LAS DEHESAS DEL ENTORNO 287016 Spain  
Mahale Mountains National Park II 398414 Tanzania
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Marakele National Park II 163507 Limpopo, South Africa
Massiccio del Monte Pollino e Monte Alpi 217581 Italy  
Monchique 187820 Portugal  
Mont Ventoux Biosphere Reserve 198594 France  
Montesinho/Nogueira 266900 Portugal  
Mount Kulal Biosphere Reserve 1729738 Kenya  
Mourão/Moura/Barrancos 209832 Portugal  
Nanda Devi National Park II 161583 Uttaranchal, India  
OREINOS EVROS - KOILADA DEREIOU 120853 Greece  
OROS PAIKO, STENA APSALOU KAI MOGLENITSAS 227258 Greece  
OROS VORAS 196334 Greece  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palamau Tiger Reserve National Park II 329056 Bihar, India
Parc National de la Comoe National Park II 2902593 Côte d'Ivoire  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Picentini 157557 Italy  
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Rajaji National Park II 196637 Uttaranchal, India  
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Nevada Biosphere Reserve 424147 Spain  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Rios Sabor e Maçãs 125253 Portugal  
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
RÍO GUADALOPE - MAESTRAZGO 133800 Spain  
SIERRA DE ARACENA Y PICOS DE AROCHE 461592 Spain  
SIERRA DE GRAZALEMA 131980 Spain  
SIERRA DE GREDOS 213494 Spain  
SIERRA DE LAS VILLUERCAS Y VALLE DEL GUADARRANQUE 188630 Spain  
SIERRA NEVADA 424554 Spain  
SIERRA NORTE 438558 Spain  
SIERRAS DE CAZORLA, SEGURA Y LAS VILLAS 519222 Spain  
Sanjay Gandhi National Park II 439343 Maharashtra, India
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Serengeti-Ngorongoro Biosphere Reserve 5696026 Tanzania  
Serra do Gerês 156759 Portugal  
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Sunderban National Park 261613 India  
The W Region National Park II 549843 Niger  
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Tsavo East National Park II 3232255 Kenya
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Vale do Guadiana 189151 Portugal  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Waterberg Biosphere Reserve 1024427 Limpopo, South Africa  
West Caprivi Game Reserve Game Park VI 1448182 Namibia  
Zempléni-hegység a Szerencsi-dombsággal és a Hernád-völggyel 284651 Hungary  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Cape Floristic Region South Africa No
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Ficus amplissima[6]
Ficus benghalensis (Indian banyan)[6]
Ficus drupacea (brown-woolly fig)[6]
Ficus religiosa (peepul tree)[6]
Ficus thonningii (Chinese banyan)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acridotheres fuscus (Jungle Myna)2
Acridotheres ginginianus (Bank Myna)2
Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)5
Acritillas indica (Yellow-browed Bulbul)3
Anthracoceros albirostris (Oriental Pied Hornbill)2
Anthracoceros coronatus (Malabar Pied Hornbill)2
Axis axis (chital)3
Boselaphus tragocamelus (nilgai)2
Buceros bicornis (Great Hornbill)3
Chloropsis aurifrons (Golden-fronted Leafbird)3
Chloropsis cochinchinensis (Blue-winged Leafbird)2
Coracina novaehollandiae (Black-faced Cuckooshrike)3
Corvus macrorhynchos (Large-billed Crow)5
Corvus splendens (House Crow)2
Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)3
Dendrocitta leucogastra (White-bellied Treepie)2
Dendrocitta vagabunda (Rufous Treepie)4
Dicaeum agile (Thick-billed Flowerpecker)3
Dicaeum chrysorrheum (Yellow-vented Flowerpecker)2
Dinopium benghalense (Lesser Goldenback)3
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)4
Geokichla citrina (Orange-headed Thrush)2
Gracula religiosa (Hill Myna)2
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)3
Loriculus vernalis (Vernal Hanging Parrot)3
Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey)2
Macaca radiata (bonnet macaque)2
Megalaima australis (Blue-eared Barbet)2
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)4
Megalaima rubricapillus (Crimson-fronted Barbet)2
Megalaima viridis (White-cheeked Barbet)4
Megalaima zeylanica (Brown-headed Barbet)3
Melursus ursinus (Sloth Bear)2
Monticola solitarius (Blue Rock Thrush)2
Ocyceros birostris (Indian Grey Hornbill)2
Ocyceros griseus (Malabar Grey Hornbill)4
Oriolus xanthornus (Black-hooded Oriole)2
Pastor roseus (Rosy Starling)2
Psittacula columboides (Blue-winged Parakeet)3
Psittacula cyanocephala (Plum-headed Parakeet)3
Psittacula krameri (Rose-ringed Parakeet)3
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)4
Pycnonotus cafer (Red-vented Bulbul)4
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered Bulbul)4
Pycnonotus luteolus (White-browed Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus melanicterus (Black-crested Bulbul)3
Ratufa bicolor (black giant squirrel)2
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette)2
Rousettus leschenaultii (Leschenault's rousette)2
Semnopithecus entellus (Hanuman langur)3
Sturnia malabarica (Chestnut-tailed Starling)2
Sus scrofa (wild boar)2
Tockus nasutus (African Grey Hornbill)2
Treron curvirostra (Thick-billed Green Pigeon)2
Treron phoenicopterus (Yellow-footed Green Pigeon)2
Treron pompadora (Pompadour Green Pigeon)3
Turdoides striata (Bengal jungle babbler)3
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)2

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acuaria gracilis <Unverified Name>[7]
Acuaria parorioli <Unverified Name>[7]
Anomotaenia galbulae <Unverified Name>[7]
Anonchotaenia oriolina <Unverified Name>[7]
Cardiofilaria pavlovskyi <Unverified Name>[7]
Centrorhynchus areolatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Dilepis undula[7]
Diplotriaena ozouxi <Unverified Name>[7]
Dispharynx nasuta <Unverified Name>[7]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[7]
Hymenolepis stylosa <Unverified Name>[7]
Icterotaenia galbulae <Unverified Name>[7]
Leucochloridium actitis <Unverified Name>[7]
Leucochloridium macrostoma <Unverified Name>[7]
Microtetrameres inermis <Unverified Name>[7]
Microtetrameres oriolus <Unverified Name>[7]
Multiuterina skrjabini <Unverified Name>[7]
Multiuterina spasskyi <Unverified Name>[7]
Ornithodendrium imanensis[7]
Oxyspirura rysavyi <Unverified Name>[7]
Passerilepis crenata[7]
Passerilepis stylosa <Unverified Name>[7]
Plagiorchis brauni <Unverified Name>[7]
Plagiorchis elegans[7]
Plagiorchis notabilis <Unverified Name>[7]
Sicarius dipterum <Unverified Name>[7]
Tamerlania zarudnyi <Unverified Name>[7]
Variolepis farciminosa[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Bird Park Marlow
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC

Distribution

Cape Peninsula National Park; Tsavo National Park;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605 3British Trust for Ornithology 4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 5Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 6"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572 7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access