Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Paridae > Parus > Parus major
 

Parus major (Great Tit)

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
12
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
31
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 9.75194
EDGE Score: 2.37509

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  18 grams
Birth Weight [2]  1.7 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Clutch Size [4]  8
Clutches / Year [5]  1
Incubation [3]  13 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  15 years
Speed [6]  30.42 MPH (13.6 m/s)
Wing Span [6]  9 inches (.23 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe Kazahkstan, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Badghyz and Karabil semi-desert Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Tajikistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
Borneo lowland rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo peat swamp forests Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests Myanmar, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daba Mountains evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
East Afghan montane conifer forests Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Java-Bali montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Java-Bali rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guizhou Plateau broadleaf and mixed forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hainan Island monsoon rain forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Helanshan montane conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Himalayan subtropical pine forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Hindu Kush alpine meadow Afghanistan, Pakistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Indochina mangroves Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Indus Valley desert Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kazakh upland Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Kopet Dag semi-desert Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe Iran, Turkmenistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kuh Rud and Eastern Iran montane woodlands Iran Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Lesser Sundas deciduous forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests  
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Luang Prabang montane rain forests Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Malabar Coast moist forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mentawai Islands rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nansei Islands subtropical evergreen forests Japan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests China, India, Bhutan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Annamites rain forests Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows China, Pakistan, India Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Ordos Plateau steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Paropamisus xeric woodlands Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Qilian Mountains conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qilian Mountains subalpine meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests China, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Taiwan monsoon rain forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka lowland rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka montane rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Suiphun-Khanka meadows and forest meadows China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sulaiman Range alpine meadows Afghanistan, Pakistan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran lowland rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran peat swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran tropical pine forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sumba deciduous forests Indonesia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sunda Shelf mangroves Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Sundaland heath forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundarbans mangroves Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Java montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Java rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yarlung Tsangpo arid steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Yellow Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alte Valli Stura e Maira 103806 Italy  
Amudarya Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 152861 Lebap, Turkmenistan  
Appennino Lucano, Valle Agri, Monte Sirino, Monte Raparo 90310 Italy  
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Badghyz Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 215164 Turkmenistan  
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Bandhavgarh National Park II 89210 Madhya Pradesh, India  
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
CABO DE GATA-NIJAR 122347 Spain  
Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve 123722 Viet Nam  
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Chae Son National Park II 194441 Thailand
Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve V 619089 Jilin, China  
Chausey 203679 France  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
Cibodas Biosphere Reserve (Gunung Gede-Pangrango) 142165 Java, Indonesia      
Corbett National Park II 141853 Uttaranchal, India
DESFILADEROS DEL RÍO MARTÍN 110851 Spain  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Daweishan Nature Reserve V 122415 Yunnan, China  
Doi Inthanon National Park II 115326 Thailand  
Fanjingshan Nature Reserve V 86145 Guizhou, China  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Fujian Wuyishan Nature Reserve V 206754 Fujian, China  
Gaoligong Mountain National Nature Reserve V 1245925 Yunnan, China  
Great Himalayan National Park II 184040 Himachal Pradesh, India
Gunung Leuser National Park II 2203368 Sumatra, Indonesia
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
Itäisen Suomenlahden saaristo ja vedet 236302 Finland    
Kanha Tiger Reserve National Park II 223971 Madhya Pradesh, India
Kaplankyr Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 1293994 Turkmenistan  
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kerinci Seblat National Park II 3463483 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Kopetdagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 125705 Turkmenistan  
Krivoklatsko Protected Landscape Area V 155267 Czech Republic  
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
Kugti Sanctuary IV 126362 Himachal Pradesh, India  
LLANOS DE ALCANTARA Y BROZAS 126519 Spain  
Lagorai 114140 Italy  
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
MATARRAÑA - AIGUABARREIX 90747 Spain  
MONFRAGÜE Y LAS DEHESAS DEL ENTORNO 287016 Spain  
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Maolan Biosphere Reserve V 79467 Guizhou, China  
Merenkurkun saaristo 316695 Finland    
Mont Ventoux Biosphere Reserve 198594 France  
Mount Odaigahara and Mount Omine Biosphere Reserve 88558 Kyushu, Japan  
Namtok Mae Surin National Park II 104414 Thailand
Nanda Devi National Park II 161583 Uttaranchal, India  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Om Koi Wildlife Sanctuary IV 299357 Thailand  
POSETS - MALADETA 82205 Spain  
Palamau Tiger Reserve National Park II 329056 Bihar, India
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio National Park V 333737 Italy
Parco Regionale Orobie Bergamasche 121015 Italy  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Pu Mat National Park IV 239739 Viet Nam  
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Rajaji National Park II 196637 Uttaranchal, India  
Repetek Biosphere Reserve 102089 Turkmenistan  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
RÍO GUADALOPE - MAESTRAZGO 133800 Spain  
SIERRA DE ALCUBIERRE 103846 Spain  
SIERRA DE ARACENA Y PICOS DE AROCHE 461592 Spain  
SIERRA DE GRAZALEMA 131980 Spain  
SIERRA NEVADA 424554 Spain  
SIERRAS DE CAZORLA, SEGURA Y LAS VILLAS 519222 Spain  
SIERRAS DE SANTO DOMINGO Y CABALLERA Y RÍO ONSELLA 88167 Spain  
SIERRAS DE TEJEDA, ALMIJARA Y ALHAMA 100440 Spain  
Saaristomeri 147873 Finland    
Sanjay Gandhi National Park II 439343 Maharashtra, India
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Shiwandashanshuiyuanlian National Nature Preserve National Nature Reserve V 481588 Guangxi, China  
Simlipal Tiger Reserve National Park II 103465 Orissa, India  
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Stora Sjofallet National Park II 314943 Sweden
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Sunderban National Park 261613 India  
Syunt-Khasardagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 105306 Turkmenistan  
Teberdinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 210198 Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia
Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary IV 918234 Thailand  
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Wolong Nature Reserve V 826140 Sichuan, China  
Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve V 567531 Yunnan, China  

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Japan Japan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No
Wallacea East Timor, Indonesia No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Aphis fabae (Bean aphid)[7]
Arbutus unedo (strawberry tree)[8]
Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)[7]
Cornus sanguinea (bloodtwig dogwood)[9]
Corylus avellana (common filbert)[7]
Crataegus monogyna (Common Hawthorn)[9]
Cryphoeca silvicola[7]
Euonymus europaeus (European spindletree)[10]
Fagus sylvatica (European beech)[7]
Ficus thonningii (Chinese banyan)[11]
Ficus virens[11]
Mesembrina meridiana (Mid-day Fly)[7]
Oxalis montana (mountain woodsorrel)[7]
Phillyrea latifolia[8]
Pistacia lentiscus (mastic tree)[8]
Pistacia terebinthus (Cyprus turpentine)[8]
Prunus avium (Wild Cherry)[9]
Prunus domestica (plum)[9]
Sambucus nigra (European black elderberry)[9]
Sorbus aucuparia (Mountain Ash)[9]
Stenurella melanura[7]
Viola arvensis (European field pansy)[7]
Yponomeuta evonymella (Full-spotted Ermel Moth)[7]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acrocephalus palustris (Marsh Warbler)3
Aegithalos caudatus (Long-tailed Bushtit)6
Blepharidopterus angulatus (Black-kneed Capsid)3
Certhia familiaris (Eurasian Treecreeper)3
Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Hawfinch)4
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)3
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)12
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)7
Ficedula hypoleuca (European Pied Flycatcher)7
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)5
Garrulus glandarius (Eurasian Jay)3
Hirundo rustica (Barn Swallow)3
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)9
Muscicapa striata (Spotted Flycatcher)3
Oenanthe oenanthe (Northern Wheatear)3
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)3
Passer montanus (Eurasian Tree Sparrow)4
Periparus ater (Coal Tit)8
Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Common Redstart)3
Phylloscopus collybita (Common Chiffchaff)3
Phylloscopus sibillatrix (Wood Warbler)3
Phylloscopus trochilus (Willow Warbler)3
Poecile montanus (Willow Tit)5
Poecile palustris (Marsh Tit)6
Prunella modularis (Dunnock)3
Regulus regulus (Goldcrest)3
Saturnia pavonia (Emperor moth)3
Sitta europaea (Eurasian Nuthatch)6
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)7
Sylvia borin (Garden Warbler)3
Sylvia melanocephala (Sardinian Warbler)4
Troglodytes troglodytes (Winter Wren)3
Turdus iliacus (Redwing)3
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)7
Turdus philomelos (Song Thrush)4

Predators

Aegolius funereus (Boreal Owl)[7]
Dendrocopos major (Great Spotted Woodpecker)[7]
Strix aluco (Tawny Owl)[7]

Providers

Shelter 
Columba oenas (Stock Dove)[7]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anonchotaenia bobica <Unverified Name>[12]
Anonchotaenia globata <Unverified Name>[12]
Brachylecithum attenuatum <Unverified Name>[12]
Capillaria tridens <Unverified Name>[12]
Cardiofilaria pavlovskyi <Unverified Name>[12]
Ceratophyllus fringillae[13]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[13]
Ceratophyllus pullatus[13]
Ceratophyllus sciurorum sciurorum <Unverified Name>[13]
Ceratophyllus tribulis[13]
Collyriclum faba <Unverified Name>[12]
Ctenophthalmus agyrtes bosnicus[13]
Ctenophthalmus orientalis[13]
Dasypsyllus gallinulae gallinulae[13]
Diplotriaena henryi <Unverified Name>[12]
Emberizotaenia reductorhyncha <Unverified Name>[12]
Hymenolepis clerci <Unverified Name>[12]
Hymenolepis nasuta <Unverified Name>[12]
Hymenolepis parina <Unverified Name>[12]
Hymenolepis polygramma <Unverified Name>[12]
Lapwingia dharwadensis <Unverified Name>[12]
Leptopsylla segnis (European mouse flea)[13]
Leucochloridium macrostoma <Unverified Name>[12]
Leucochloridium paradoxum <Unverified Name>[12]
Leucochloridium phragmitophila <Unverified Name>[12]
Lyperosomum platynosomoides <Unverified Name>[12]
Mediorhynchus micracanthus[12]
Megabothris turbidus[13]
Monopylidium musculosum <Unverified Name>[12]
Monopylidium parinum <Unverified Name>[12]
Monopylidium passerinum <Unverified Name>[12]
Monopylidium spinoscapite <Unverified Name>[12]
Nosopsyllus fasciatus (northern rat flea)[13]
Ornithophaga mikulini[13]
Ornithophaga sinaia[13]
Orthoskrjabinia bobica <Unverified Name>[12]
Passerilepis stylosa <Unverified Name>[12]
Plagiorchis elegans[12]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[12]
Taenia nasuta <Unverified Name>[12]
Tarsopsylla octodecimdentata octodecimdentata[13]
Variolepis farciminosa[12]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Inokashira Park Zoo
Ueno Zoological Gardens
 major
Universeum Science Center

Distribution

Audio

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Provided by Xeno-canto under a Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 2.5 License Author: Volker Arnold

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Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605 3Intrinsic aging-related mortality in birds, Robert E. Ricklefs, JOURNAL OF AVIAN BIOLOGY 31: 103–111. Copenhagen 2000 4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 5British Trust for Ornithology 6Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 7Ecology of Commanster 8Recruitment of a Mast-Fruiting, Bird-Dispersed Tree: Bridging Frugivore Activity and Seedling Establishment, Carlos M. Herrera, Pedro Jordano, Luis López-Soria, Juan A. Amat, Ecological Monographs, 64(3), 1994, pp. 315-344 9Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 10VARIATIONS IN SPINDLE EUONYMUS EUROPAEUS CONSUMPTION BY FRUGIVOROUS BIRDS DURING THE FRUITING SEASON, Ángel HERNÁNDEZ, Ardeola 50(2), 2003, 171-180 11"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572 12Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 13International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
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