Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Paridae > Parus > Parus niger

Parus niger (Southern Black Tit)

Wikipedia Abstract

The southern black tit or simply black tit (Melaniparus niger) is a species of bird in the tit family Paridae. It occurs chiefly in tropical and subtropical savanna woodland, in a semicircular arc from Angola to Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. It prefers woodland dominated by broad-leaved trees, most importantly miombo, Combretum species, and Burkea africana. It is especially common in the woodlands of western Zimbabwe, where densities can reach as high as fifty birds per square kilometre.
View Wikipedia Record: Parus niger


EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.70037
EDGE Score: 2.27216


Adult Weight [1]  22 grams
Birth Weight [1]  1.9 grams
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Nectarivore, Granivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  10 %
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  70 %
Diet - Nectar [2]  10 %
Diet - Seeds [2]  10 %
Forages - Mid-High [2]  100 %
Clutch Size [4]  5
Incubation [3]  14 days


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Angolan Mopane woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eastern Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Mozambique Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Namibian savanna woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southern Africa bushveld Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bluff Nature Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve IV 114 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Etosha National Park II 5699141 Namibia  
Hlane Royal National Park VI 30892 Swaziland  
Hwange National Park II 3651385 Zimbabwe  
Itala Game Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve II 72822 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Kenneth Stainbank Nature Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve IV 554 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Krantzkloof Nature Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve IV 1452 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve   Mpumalanga, South Africa  
Lapalala Wilderness Nature Reserve 88958 Limpopo, South Africa
Liwonde National Park II 116740 Malawi  
Malolotja Nature Reserve IV 42044 Swaziland  
Marakele National Park II 163507 Limpopo, South Africa
Mariannwood Nature Reserve   South Africa      
Mlawula Nature Reserve IV 46444 Swaziland  
Mountain Zebra National Park II 60944 Eastern Cape, South Africa
New Germany Nature Reserve 272 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
North Park Nature Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve IV 104 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
Northern Works   South Africa      
Palmiet Nature Reserve   Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
Parc National du Niokolo-Koba National Park II 2046878 Senegal  
Pigeon Valley Nature Reserve 25 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa      
Queen Elizabeth National Park II 522052 Uganda
Roosfontein Nature Reserve 519 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Shongweni Resources Reserve 42008 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Silverglen Nature Reserve 566 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Umbogavango Nature Reserve 89 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Umgeni River Provincial Nature Reserve 2372 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Umhlanga Lagoon Provincial Nature Reserve 95 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Virginia Bush Nature Reserve 94 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Waterberg Biosphere Reserve 1024427 Limpopo, South Africa  
Weenen Nature Reserve   Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
West Caprivi Game Reserve Game Park VI 1448182 Namibia  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No

Prey / Diet

Aloe ferox (Cape aloe)[3]
Aloidendron barberae (Tree aloe)[3]
Commiphora harveyi[5]
Ficus thonningii (Chinese banyan)[6]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)1
Andropadus importunus (Sombre Greenbul)2
Arizelocichla milanjensis (Stripe-cheeked Greenbul)1
Bycanistes brevis (Silvery-cheeked Hornbill)1
Bycanistes bucinator (Trumpeter Hornbill)1
Cercopithecus mitis (blue monkey)2
Cinnyricinclus leucogaster (Violet-backed Starling)1
Columba larvata (Lemon Dove)1
Columba livia (Rock Pigeon)1
Coracina caesia (Grey Cuckooshrike)1
Corythaeola cristata (Great Blue Turaco)1
Dicrurus adsimilis (Fork-tailed Drongo)2
Eidolon helvum (straw-colored fruit bat)1
Lamprotornis bicolor (Pied Starling)1
Lamprotornis nitens (Cape Starling)1
Loxodonta africana (African Bush Elephant)1
Lybius torquatus (Black-collared Barbet)2
Notopholia corrusca (Black-bellied Starling)2
Onychognathus morio (Red-winged Starling)2
Onychognathus nabouroup (Pale-winged Starling)1
Oriolus larvatus (Black-headed Oriole)2
Oriolus oriolus (Eurasian Golden Oriole)1
Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee)1
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)1
Phoeniculus purpureus (Green Wood Hoopoe)1
Ploceus bicolor (Dark-backed Weaver)1
Ploceus rubiginosus (Chestnut Weaver)1
Ploceus subaureus (African Golden Weaver)1
Pogoniulus bilineatus (Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird)1
Pogoniulus pusillus (Red-fronted Tinkerbird)2
Psittacula krameri (Rose-ringed Parakeet)1
Pycnonotus barbatus (Common Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus goiavier (Yellow-vented Bulbul)1
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette)1
Sylvicapra grimmia (bush duiker)1
Tauraco corythaix (Knysna Turaco)1
Tauraco livingstonii (Livingstone's Turaco)1
Tauraco schalowi (Schalow's Turaco)1
Tockus alboterminatus (Crowned Hornbill)1
Tockus erythrorhynchus (Red-billed Hornbill)1
Treron calvus (African Green Pigeon)1
Turdus olivaceus (Olive Thrush)1
Turdus pallidus (Pale Thrush)1
Zosterops pallidus (Orange River White-eye)2
Zosterops senegalensis (African Yellow White-eye)1




Attributes / relations provided by
1Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
5Seed Dispersal by Birds in a South African and a Malagasy Commiphora Species, Bärbel Bleher, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Ecotropica 6: 43–53, 2000
6"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access