Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Pycnonotidae > Pycnonotus > Pycnonotus barbatus
 

Pycnonotus barbatus (Common Bulbul)

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
4
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
18
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 3.91464
EDGE Score: 1.59222

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  35 grams
Birth Weight [1]  3.4 grams
Clutch Size [2]  2

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Albertine Rift montane forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi,Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Angolan montane forest-grassland mosaic Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Angolan Mopane woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cameroonian Highlands forests Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central African mangroves Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial, Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Mangroves    
Central Congolian lowland forests Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cross-Niger transition forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East African halophytics Tanzania Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
East African mangroves Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia Afrotropic Mangroves
East African montane forests Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East Saharan montane xeric woodlands Chad, Sudan Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Arc forests Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Mozambique Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Zimbabwe montane forest-grassland mosaic Zimbabwe, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Eritrean coastal desert Eritrea Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Ethiopian montane forests Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Ethiopia, Eritrea Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian montane moorlands Ethiopia Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guinean mangroves Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire Afrotropic Mangroves
Guinean montane forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Highveld grasslands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Hobyo grasslands and shrublands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Inner Niger Delta flooded savanna Mali Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Jos Plateau forest-grassland mosaic Nigeria Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lake Chad flooded savanna Nigeria, Chad, Niger Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Mandara Plateau mosaic Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Masai xeric grasslands and shrublands Kenya Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe Morocco Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Niger Delta swamp forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nigerian lowland forests Nigeria, Benin Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northeastern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwestern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Rwenzori-Virunga montane moorlands Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Sahara desert Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Saharan halophytics Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Mauritania, Western Sahara Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Serengeti volcanic grasslands Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali montane xeric woodlands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Malawi montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
South Saharan steppe and woodlands Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Africa bushveld Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Africa mangroves South Africa, Mozambique Afrotropic Mangroves
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Rift montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric woodlands Chad, Libya Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Gabon, Congo, Democratic Rep of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Zambezian grasslands Angola, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian Cryptosepalum dry forests Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Zambezian flooded grasslands Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Abuko Nature Reserve IV 264 Gambia
Addo Elephant National Park II 348463 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Bamingui-Bangoran Conservation Area National Park II 2783298 Central African Republic  
Banco National Park 6492 Côte d'Ivoire  
Bayhead Natural Heritage Site   Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Bluff Nature Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve IV 114 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Burko Catchment Forest Reserve 1342 Tanzania  
Calamocarro-Benzú 1487 Spain  
Chome Catchment Forest Reserve IV 34897 Tanzania  
Foret Classee de la Mare Aux Hippopotames Bird Reserve IV 37906 Burkina Faso  
Golden Gate Highlands National Park II 28689 Free State, South Africa
Gombe National Park II 8799 Tanzania
Hlane Royal National Park VI 30892 Swaziland  
Hwange National Park II 3651385 Zimbabwe  
Itala Game Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve II 72822 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Kahuzi-Biéga National Park II 1647768 Democratic Republic of the Congo  
Kakamega Forest Reseve Forest Reserve 44820 Kenya
Katavi National Park II 1054210 Tanzania
Kenneth Stainbank Nature Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve IV 554 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Kibale National Park II 196202 Uganda
Kitumbeine Local Authority Forest Reserve   Tanzania      
Kiunga Marine National Reserve VI 60208 Kenya  
Krantzkloof Nature Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve IV 1452 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve   Mpumalanga, South Africa  
Lake Nakuru National Park II 46472 Kenya  
Lamto Reserve Station d´Ecologie Tropicale 6425 Cõte d'Ivoire  
Lapalala Wilderness Nature Reserve 88958 Limpopo, South Africa
Liwonde National Park II 116740 Malawi  
Mahale Mountains National Park II 398414 Tanzania
Malindi-Watamu Biosphere Reserve 48433 Kenya  
Malolotja Nature Reserve IV 42044 Swaziland  
Marahoue National Park II 293884 Côte d'Ivoire  
Marakele National Park II 163507 Limpopo, South Africa
Mariannwood Nature Reserve   South Africa      
Mlawula Nature Reserve IV 46444 Swaziland  
Mont Nimba Strict Nature Reserve Ia 11675 Côte d'Ivoire  
Mont Peko National Park II 77790 Côte d'Ivoire  
Mount Elgon National Park II 276135 Uganda
Mount Kulal Biosphere Reserve 1729738 Kenya  
Mountain Zebra National Park II 60944 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Ndimba Forest Reserve 3102 Tanzania  
Nechisar National Park II 256137 Ethiopia  
New Germany Nature Reserve 272 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
North Park Nature Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve IV 104 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
Northern Works   South Africa      
Nouabalï-Ndoki National Park II 1013529 Congo  
Omo Strict Natural Reserve Forest Reserve 328086 Nigeria  
Palmiet Nature Reserve   Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
Pande Forest Reserve Game Reserve IV 3094 Tanzania  
Parc National d'Odzala National Park II 3423581 Congo  
Parc National de la Comoe National Park II 2902593 Côte d'Ivoire  
Parc National de la Lopé National Park 1227419 Gabon  
Parc National de Tai National Park II 1085310 Côte d'Ivoire  
Parc National du Niokolo-Koba National Park II 2046878 Senegal  
Pigeon Valley Nature Reserve 25 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa      
Reserve de la Biosphere de la Pendjari Biosphere Reserve 217453 Benin  
Reserve de Moukalaba-Dougoua (Gamba Complex) Faunal Reserve IV 266550 Gabon  
Reserve des Monts Doudou (Gamba Complex) Wildlife Management Area 656901 Gabon  
Roosfontein Nature Reserve 519 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Rubondo National Park II 50330 Tanzania
Serengeti-Ngorongoro Biosphere Reserve 5696026 Tanzania  
Shongweni Resources Reserve 42008 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Silverglen Nature Reserve 566 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
South Luangwa National Park II 2220358 Zambia  
Takamanda National Park II 167041 Cameroon  
The W Region National Park II 549843 Niger  
Treasure Beach Nature Reserve   Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Uluguru Forest Reserves   Tanzania      
Umbogavango Nature Reserve 89 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Umgeni River Provincial Nature Reserve 2372 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Umhlanga Lagoon Provincial Nature Reserve 95 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Virginia Bush Nature Reserve 94 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Waterberg Biosphere Reserve 1024427 Limpopo, South Africa  
Weenen Nature Reserve   Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
West Caprivi Game Reserve Game Park VI 1448182 Namibia  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No

Emblem of

Liberia

Prey / Diet

Antiaris toxicaria[3]
Blighia unijugata (Triangle Tops)[3]
Bridelia micrantha (Coastal Golden-leaf)[3]
Carissa congesta (Conkerberry)[3]
Casearia battiscombei[3]
Cissus oliveri[3]
Commiphora harveyi[4]
Croton macrostachyus[5]
Cussonia paniculata[5]
Cyphostemma cyphopetalum subsp. cyphopetalum[3]
Ficus burtt-davyi (Veld Fig)[6]
Ficus lutea (West African rubbertree)[6]
Ficus natalensis (Natal Fig)[6]
Ficus pseudomangifera[6]
Ficus stuhlmannii (Lowveld Fig)[6]
Ficus sur (Cape fig)[3]
Ficus thonningii (Chinese banyan)[6]
Harungana madagascariensis[3]
Jasminum fluminense (Brazilian jasmine)[3]
Lantana camara (lantana)[3]
Manilkara butugi[3]
Melia azedarach (chinaberry)[5]
Morus mesozygia (black mulberry)[3]
Persea americana (avocado)[5]
Pittosporum viridiflorum (cape cheesewood)[3]
Polyscias fulva[3]
Prunus persica (peach)[5]
Psidium guajava (common guava)[5]
Rhamnus prinoides (Shiny-leaf Buckthorn)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Andropadus importunus (Sombre Greenbul)5
Arizelocichla masukuensis (Shelley's Greenbul)4
Arizelocichla milanjensis (Stripe-cheeked Greenbul)2
Arizelocichla tephrolaema (Western Greenbul)2
Baeopogon indicator (Honeyguide Greenbul)2
Buccanodon duchaillui (Yellow-spotted Barbet)4
Bycanistes brevis (Silvery-cheeked Hornbill)3
Bycanistes bucinator (Trumpeter Hornbill)5
Bycanistes subcylindricus (Grey-cheeked Hornbill)6
Cercopithecus ascanius (black-cheeked white-nosed monkey)6
Cercopithecus mitis (blue monkey)10
Cercopithecus nictitans (white-nosed guenon)2
Cercopithecus pogonias (crowned guenon)2
Chlorocichla laetissima (Joyful Greenbul)13
Cinnyricinclus leucogaster (Violet-backed Starling)2
Colius striatus (Speckled Mousebird)2
Colobus guereza (Guereza)6
Crithagra mozambica (Yellow-fronted Canary)3
Dicrurus adsimilis (Fork-tailed Drongo)2
Eidolon helvum (straw-colored fruit bat)3
Eurillas curvirostris (Plain Greenbul)3
Eurillas latirostris (Yellow-whiskered Greenbul)11
Eurillas virens (Hall's Greenbul)2
Gorilla gorilla (gorilla)3
Gymnobucco bonapartei (Grey-throated Barbet)2
Heliosciurus rufobrachium (red-legged sun squirrel)5
Lamprotornis nitens (Cape Starling)2
Loxodonta africana (African Bush Elephant)3
Lybius bidentatus (Double-toothed Barbet)2
Lybius torquatus (Black-collared Barbet)6
Musophaga rossae (Ross's Turaco)3
Nigrita canicapillus (Grey-headed negro finch)3
Notopholia corrusca (Black-bellied Starling)4
Onychognathus walleri (Waller's Starling)2
Oriolus brachyrynchus (Western Oriole)3
Oriolus larvatus (Black-headed Oriole)3
Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee)3
Parus niger (Southern Black Tit)2
Passer domesticus (House Sparrow)2
Philantomba monticola (blue duiker)2
Phyllastrephus cabanisi (Cabanis's Greenbul)2
Phyllastrephus hypochloris (Toro Olive Greenbul)3
Phylloscopus budongoensis (Uganda Woodland Warbler)3
Phylloscopus trochilus (Willow Warbler)5
Ploceus bicolor (Dark-backed Weaver)7
Pogoniulus bilineatus (Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird)17
Pogoniulus pusillus (Red-fronted Tinkerbird)3
Pteropus voeltzkowi (Pemba flying fox)3
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette)2
Stactolaema leucotis (White-eared Barbet)2
Stelgidillas gracilirostris (Slender-billed Greenbul)3
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)15
Tauraco corythaix (Knysna Turaco)3
Tauraco persa (Guinea Turaco)2
Tauraco porphyreolophus (Purple-crested Turaco)2
Tockus alboterminatus (Crowned Hornbill)2
Trachylaemus purpuratus (yellow-billed barbet)3
Treron calvus (African Green Pigeon)8
Turdus olivaceus (Olive Thrush)2
Turdus pelios (African Thrush)4
Turtur tympanistria (Tambourine Dove)2
Zosterops pallidus (Cape White-eye)4
Zosterops senegalensis (African Yellow White-eye)13

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Paronia calcaruterina <Unverified Name>[7]
Pleuropsoloides peirci <Unverified Name>[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Adventure Aquarium
Assiniboine Park Zoo
Bird Park Marlow
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
Detroit Zoological Society
Disney's Animal Kingdom
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africa
Oakland Zoo
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Rotterdam Zoo
Sedgwick County Zoo
The Philadelphia Zoo
Toledo Zoological Gardens
Toronto Zoo
Umgeni River Bird Park
Vogelpark (Birdpark) Avifauna
Zoo of Antwerp
Zoological Garden Praguelayardi
Zoologicka zahrada Libereclayardi
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzeninornatus
 layardi

Distribution

Takamanda Forest Reserve;

Audio

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Provided by Xeno-canto under a Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 2.5 License Author: Lars Lachmann

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605 2Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 3Specialization and interaction strength in a tropical plant-frugivore network differ among forest strata, Matthias Schleuning, Nico Blüthgen, Martina Flörchinger, Julius Braun, H. Martin Schaefer, and Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Ecology, in press. 4Seed Dispersal by Birds in a South African and a Malagasy Commiphora Species, Bärbel Bleher, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Ecotropica 6: 43–53, 2000 5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 6"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572 7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2