Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Pycnonotidae > Pycnonotus > Pycnonotus brunneus
 

Pycnonotus brunneus (Asian Red-eyed Bulbul)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Asian red-eyed bulbul (Pycnonotus brunneus) is a species of songbird in the Pycnonotidae family.It is found in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma, Singapore, and Thailand.Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.
View Wikipedia Record: Pycnonotus brunneus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
8
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
26
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 7.24499
EDGE Score: 2.10961

Attributes

Diet [1]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Granivore
Diet - Fruit [1]  50 %
Diet - Invertibrates [1]  20 %
Diet - Seeds [1]  30 %
Forages - Canopy [1]  10 %
Forages - Mid-High [1]  70 %
Forages - Understory [1]  20 %
Clutch Size [2]  2

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Borneo lowland rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo peat swamp forests Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Indochina mangroves Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Mentawai Islands rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran peat swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sunda Shelf mangroves Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Sundaland heath forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Java rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Augrabies Falls National Park II 137301 Northern Cape, South Africa
Bako National Park II 9035 Sarawak, Malaysia  
Batang Ai National Park II 62638 Sarawak, Malaysia
Berbak National Park II 423927 Sumatra, Indonesia
Betung Kerihun National Park II 1945086 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park II 836773 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Bukit Tigah Puluh National Park 360578 Sumatra, Indonesia
Bukit Timah Nature Reserve II 411 Singapore
Danau Sentarum National Park 347674 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Etosha National Park II 5699141 Namibia  
Golden Gate Highlands National Park II 28689 Free State, South Africa
Gunung Leuser National Park II 2203368 Sumatra, Indonesia
Gunung Niut Wildlife Reserve Nature Reserve IV 409109 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Gunung Palung National Park II 271203 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
Karoo National Park II 190300 Western Cape, South Africa
Kerinci Seblat National Park II 3463483 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Khao Banthat Wildlife Sanctuary IV 309428 Thailand  
Khao Lam Pi - Hat Thai Muang National Marine Park II 17646 Thailand
Khao Luang National Park II 143331 Thailand
Khao Phanom Bencha National Park II 12840 Thailand
Khao Phra Thaeo Non-hunting Area No or Non Hunting Area   Thailand      
Khao Pra Bang Kram Wildlife Sanctuary IV 30009 Thailand  
Khao Pu - Khao Ya National Park II 176398 Thailand
Khao Sok National Park II 159284 Thailand
Khao Tha Phet Non-hunting Area No or Non Hunting Area   Thailand      
Khlong Lam Chan Non-hunting Area No or Non Hunting Area   Thailand      
Khlong Nakha Wildlife Sanctuary IV 117887 Thailand  
Khlong Phraya Wildlife Sanctuary IV 36624 Thailand  
Khlong Saeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 243425 Thailand  
Krau Wildlife Reserve IV 149823 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Kutai National Park II 560076 East Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Marakele National Park II 163507 Limpopo, South Africa
Mountain Zebra National Park II 60944 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Mu Ko Ang Thong National Park Marine National Park II 25953 Thailand  
Namtok Yong National Park II 52286 Thailand
Nylsvley Nature Reserve IV 7698 Limpopo, South Africa
Pasoh Virgin Jungle Reserve Ia   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Prince Chumphon Park (North) Wildlife Sanctuary IV 152683 Thailand  
Richtersveld National Park II 399195 Northern Cape, South Africa
Sungai Lalang Forest Reserve Virgin Jungle Reserve Ia   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Tabin Wildlife Reserve IV 275051 Sabah, Malaysia  
Tanjung Puting National Park II 987160 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Tarutao National Park Marine National Park II 312077 Thailand  
Tasek Bera Forest Reserve   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Thale Noi Non-hunting Area No or Non Hunting Area III   Thailand  
Thaleban National Park Marine National Park II 49715 Thailand
Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 45094 Thailand  
Ulu Temburong National Park II 123279 Brunei Darussalam  
Way Kambas National Park II 306926 Sumatra, Indonesia
Wilderness National Park II 5929 Western Cape, South Africa  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No

Prey / Diet

Ficus acamptophylla[3]
Ficus altissima (false banyan)[3]
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)[3]
Ficus binnendykii[3]
Ficus callophylla[3]
Ficus caulocarpa[3]
Ficus consociata[3]
Ficus crassiramea[3]
Ficus crassiramea subsp. stupenda[3]
Ficus delosyce[3]
Ficus dubia[3]
Ficus fulva[3]
Ficus kerkhoveni[3]
Ficus obscura[3]
Ficus parietalis[3]
Ficus pellucido-punctata[3]
Ficus pisocarpa[3]
Ficus sagittata[3]
Ficus stricta[3]
Ficus subcordata[3]
Ficus subgelderi[3]
Ficus sumatrana[3]
Ficus sundaica[3]
Ficus trichocarpa[3]
Ficus uniglandulosa[3]
Ficus virens[3]
Ficus xylophylla[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aceros corrugatus (Wrinkled Hornbill)12
Aegithina viridissima (Green Iora)3
Alcippe brunneicauda (Brown Fulvetta)7
Alophoixus bres (Grey-cheeked Bulbul)15
Alophoixus finschii (Finsch's Bulbul)6
Alophoixus pallidus (Puff-throated Bulbul)3
Alophoixus phaeocephalus (Yellow-bellied Bulbul)13
Anorrhinus galeritus (Bushy-crested Hornbill)17
Anorrhinus tickelli (Brown Hornbill)3
Anthracoceros albirostris (Oriental Pied Hornbill)5
Anthracoceros malayanus (Black Hornbill)22
Arctictis binturong (Binturong)6
Berenicornis comatus (White-crowned Hornbill)5
Buceros bicornis (Great Hornbill)3
Buceros rhinoceros (Rhinoceros Hornbill)17
Callosciurus adamsi (ear-spot squirrel)7
Callosciurus finlaysonii (Finlayson's squirrel)3
Callosciurus nigrovittatus (black-striped squirrel)7
Callosciurus notatus (plantain squirrel)16
Callosciurus prevostii (Prevost's squirrel)22
Caloramphus fuliginosus (Brown Barbet)23
Calyptomena viridis (Green Broadbill)21
Chalcophaps indica (Common Emerald Dove)4
Chloropsis cochinchinensis (Blue-winged Leafbird)12
Chloropsis cyanopogon (Lesser Green Leafbird)18
Chloropsis sonnerati (Greater Green Leafbird)20
Corvus enca (Slender-billed Crow)3
Dicaeum agile (Thick-billed Flowerpecker)4
Dicaeum chrysorrheum (Yellow-vented Flowerpecker)11
Dicaeum concolor (Plain Flowerpecker)5
Dicaeum trigonostigma (Orange-bellied Flowerpecker)10
Ducula aenea (Green Imperial Pigeon)3
Ducula badia (Mountain Imperial Pigeon)5
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)4
Gracula religiosa (Hill Myna)15
Hemixos flavala (Ashy Bulbul)3
Hylobates agilis (agile gibbon)3
Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)13
Hylobates moloch (silvery gibbon)5
Iole olivacea (Buff-vented Bulbul)16
Iole propinqua (Grey-eyed Bulbul)3
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)22
Ixos malaccensis (Streaked Bulbul)8
Loriculus galgulus (Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot)9
Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque)19
Macaca nemestrina (pigtail macaque)4
Megalaima australis (Blue-eared Barbet)21
Megalaima chrysopogon (Golden-whiskered Barbet)21
Megalaima henricii (Yellow-crowned Barbet)16
Megalaima lineata (Lineated Barbet)3
Megalaima mystacophanos (Red-throated Barbet)23
Megalaima rafflesii (Red-crowned Barbet)13
Oriolus chinensis (Black-naped Oriole)3
Oriolus xanthonotus (Dark-throated Oriole)8
Platysmurus leucopterus (Black Magpie)5
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)19
Prionochilus maculatus (Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker)11
Prionochilus percussus (Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker)15
Prionochilus thoracicus (Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker)8
Prionochilus xanthopygius (Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker)10
Psittacula longicauda (Long-tailed Parakeet)3
Ptilinopus jambu (Jambu Fruit Dove)6
Pycnonotus atriceps (Black-headed Bulbul)12
Pycnonotus cyaniventris (Grey-bellied Bulbul)12
Pycnonotus erythropthalmos (Spectacled Bulbul)15
Pycnonotus eutilotus (Puff-backed Bulbul)19
Pycnonotus goiavier (Yellow-vented Bulbul)8
Pycnonotus melanicterus (Black-crested Bulbul)4
Pycnonotus plumosus (Olive-winged Bulbul)10
Pycnonotus simplex (Cream-vented Bulbul)10
Ratufa affinis (pale giant squirrel)6
Ratufa bicolor (black giant squirrel)11
Rhinoplax vigil (Helmeted Hornbill)12
Rhyticeros undulatus (Wreathed Hornbill)12
Rusa unicolor (sambar)3
Sundasciurus tenuis (slender squirrel)5
Sus barbatus (bearded pig)3
Symphalangus syndactylus (siamang)8
Trachypithecus obscurus (dusky leaf monkey)6
Treron capellei (Large Green Pigeon)14
Treron curvirostra (Thick-billed Green Pigeon)21
Treron olax (Little Green Pigeon)7
Tricholestes criniger (Hairy-backed Bulbul)10
Tupaia glis (Common Treeshrew)7
Tupaia minor (Pygmy Treeshrew)11

Distribution

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
2Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
3"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access