Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Pycnonotidae > Pycnonotus > Pycnonotus erythropthalmos

Pycnonotus erythropthalmos (Spectacled Bulbul)

Wikipedia Abstract

The spectacled bulbul (Pycnonotus erythropthalmos), also known as the lesser brown bulbul, is a bird in the bulbul family. It is known in Malay as Merbah Kecil. It is endemic to Southeast Asia.
View Wikipedia Record: Pycnonotus erythropthalmos

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 10.2057
EDGE Score: 2.41642


Adult Weight [1]  19.2 grams
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  50 %
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  20 %
Diet - Plants [2]  30 %
Forages - Canopy [2]  33 %
Forages - Mid-High [2]  33 %
Forages - Understory [2]  33 %
Clutch Size [3]  2


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Indochina mangroves Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Batang Ai National Park II 62638 Sarawak, Malaysia
Berbak National Park II 423927 Sumatra, Indonesia
Betung Kerihun National Park II 1945086 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Budo-Sungai Padi National Park II 84766 Thailand  
Bukit Tigah Puluh National Park 360578 Sumatra, Indonesia
Danau Sentarum National Park 347674 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Gunung Leuser National Park II 2203368 Sumatra, Indonesia
Gunung Palung National Park II 271203 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Kerinci Seblat National Park II 3463483 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Khao Banthat Wildlife Sanctuary IV 309428 Thailand  
Khao Lam Pi - Hat Thai Muang National Marine Park II 17646 Thailand
Khao Luang National Park II 143331 Thailand
Khao Phanom Bencha National Park II 12840 Thailand
Khao Phra Thaeo Non-hunting Area No or Non Hunting Area   Thailand      
Khao Pra Bang Kram Wildlife Sanctuary IV 30009 Thailand  
Khao Pu - Khao Ya National Park II 176398 Thailand
Khao Sok National Park II 159284 Thailand
Khao Tha Phet Non-hunting Area No or Non Hunting Area   Thailand      
Khlong Nakha Wildlife Sanctuary IV 117887 Thailand  
Khlong Phraya Wildlife Sanctuary IV 36624 Thailand  
Khlong Saeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 243425 Thailand  
Krau Wildlife Reserve IV 149823 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Kubah National Park II 6735 Sarawak, Malaysia  
Kutai National Park II 560076 East Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Namtok Yong National Park II 52286 Thailand
Pasoh Virgin Jungle Reserve Ia   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Si Phang Nga National Park II 60672 Thailand
Tabin Wildlife Reserve IV 275051 Sabah, Malaysia  
Tanjung Puting National Park II 987160 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Thaleban National Park Marine National Park II 49715 Thailand
Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 45094 Thailand  
Ulu Temburong National Park II 123279 Brunei Darussalam  
Way Kambas National Park II 306926 Sumatra, Indonesia

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Yes

Prey / Diet

Acacia mangium (Hickory Wattle)[4]
Callicarpa longifolia[4]
Dillenia excelsa[4]
Ficus acamptophylla[5]
Ficus aurata[5]
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)[5]
Ficus binnendykii[5]
Ficus caulocarpa[5]
Ficus consociata[5]
Ficus crassiramea subsp. stupenda[5]
Ficus delosyce[5]
Ficus fulva[5]
Ficus grewiifolia[5]
Ficus inaequifolia[5]
Ficus obscura[5]
Ficus pellucidopunctata[5]
Ficus pisocarpa[5]
Ficus sinuata[5]
Ficus subgelderi[5]
Ficus sundaica[5]
Ficus thonningii (Chinese banyan)[5]
Ficus trichocarpa[5]
Ficus uniglandulosa[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aceros corrugatus (Wrinkled Hornbill)6
Alcippe brunneicauda (Brown Fulvetta)8
Alophoixus bres (Grey-cheeked Bulbul)13
Alophoixus finschii (Finsch's Bulbul)6
Alophoixus pallidus (Puff-throated Bulbul)2
Alophoixus phaeocephalus (Yellow-bellied Bulbul)13
Anorrhinus galeritus (Bushy-crested Hornbill)9
Anthracoceros albirostris (Oriental Pied Hornbill)3
Anthracoceros malayanus (Black Hornbill)12
Arctictis binturong (Binturong)2
Berenicornis comatus (White-crowned Hornbill)4
Buceros bicornis (Great Hornbill)2
Buceros rhinoceros (Rhinoceros Hornbill)10
Callosciurus adamsi (ear-spot squirrel)7
Callosciurus nigrovittatus (black-striped squirrel)5
Callosciurus notatus (plantain squirrel)12
Callosciurus prevostii (Prevost's squirrel)13
Caloramphus fuliginosus (Brown Barbet)13
Calyptomena viridis (Green Broadbill)14
Chalcophaps indica (Common Emerald Dove)2
Chloropsis aurifrons (Golden-fronted Leafbird)2
Chloropsis cochinchinensis (Blue-winged Leafbird)8
Chloropsis cyanopogon (Lesser Green Leafbird)12
Chloropsis sonnerati (Greater Green Leafbird)13
Copsychus saularis (Oriental Magpie-Robin)2
Cynopterus brachyotis (lesser short-nosed fruit bat)2
Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)3
Dicaeum agile (Thick-billed Flowerpecker)4
Dicaeum chrysorrheum (Yellow-vented Flowerpecker)8
Dicaeum concolor (Nilgiri Flowerpecker)3
Dicaeum trigonostigma (Orange-bellied Flowerpecker)8
Ducula bicolor (Pied Imperial Pigeon)3
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)3
Gracula religiosa (Hill Myna)6
Helarctos malayanus (Sun bear)2
Hemixos flavala (Ashy Bulbul)2
Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)6
Iole olivacea (Buff-vented Bulbul)12
Iole propinqua (Grey-eyed Bulbul)2
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)15
Ixos malaccensis (Streaked Bulbul)5
Loriculus galgulus (Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot)5
Loriculus vernalis (Vernal Hanging Parrot)2
Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque)10
Macaca nemestrina (pigtail macaque)2
Megalaima australis (Blue-eared Barbet)13
Megalaima chrysopogon (Golden-whiskered Barbet)12
Megalaima faiostricta (Green-eared Barbet)2
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)3
Megalaima henricii (Yellow-crowned Barbet)10
Megalaima lineata (Lineated Barbet)2
Megalaima mystacophanos (Red-throated Barbet)15
Megalaima rafflesii (Red-crowned Barbet)7
Oriolus chinensis (Black-naped Oriole)3
Oriolus xanthonotus (Dark-throated Oriole)6
Oriolus xanthornus (Black-hooded Oriole)2
Platysmurus leucopterus (Black Magpie)3
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)15
Prionochilus maculatus (Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker)8
Prionochilus percussus (Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker)13
Prionochilus thoracicus (Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker)7
Prionochilus xanthopygius (Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker)10
Psittacula longicauda (Long-tailed Parakeet)3
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)2
Ptilinopus jambu (Jambu Fruit Dove)4
Pycnonotus atriceps (Black-headed Bulbul)7
Pycnonotus brunneus (Asian Red-eyed Bulbul)17
Pycnonotus cyaniventris (Grey-bellied Bulbul)10
Pycnonotus eutilotus (Puff-backed Bulbul)15
Pycnonotus finlaysoni (Stripe-throated Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus goiavier (Yellow-vented Bulbul)10
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus melanicterus (Black-crested Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus plumosus (Olive-winged Bulbul)12
Pycnonotus simplex (Cream-vented Bulbul)10
Pycnonotus zeylanicus (Straw-headed Bulbul)2
Ratufa affinis (pale giant squirrel)2
Ratufa bicolor (black giant squirrel)4
Rhinoplax vigil (Helmeted Hornbill)7
Rhyticeros undulatus (Wreathed Hornbill)6
Rousettus amplexicaudatus (Geoffroy's rousette)2
Rusa unicolor (sambar)2
Sundasciurus tenuis (slender squirrel)5
Symphalangus syndactylus (siamang)5
Treron capellei (Large Green Pigeon)7
Treron curvirostra (Thick-billed Green Pigeon)12
Treron olax (Little Green Pigeon)7
Treron vernans (Pink-necked Green Pigeon)2
Trichoglossus haematodus (Coconut Lorikeet)2
Tricholestes criniger (Hairy-backed Bulbul)7
Tupaia glis (Common Treeshrew)4
Tupaia minor (Pygmy Treeshrew)7
Turdus obscurus (Eyebrowed Thrush)2

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Jurong Birdpark, Singapore




Attributes / relations provided by
1Medway, Lord 1972. The Gunung Benom Expedition 1967. 6. The distribution and altitudinal zonation of birds and mammals on Gunung Benom. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), 23, 103–154
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
4del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
5"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access