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Sitta europaea (Eurasian Nuthatch)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Eurasian nuthatch or wood nuthatch (Sitta europaea) is a small passerine bird found throughout temperate Asia and in Europe, where its name is the nuthatch. Like other nuthatches, it is a short-tailed bird with a long bill, blue-grey upperparts and a black eye-stripe. It is a vocal bird with a repeated loud dwip call.
View Wikipedia Record: Sitta europaea

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
12
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
31
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 9.63466
EDGE Score: 2.36412

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  20 grams
Birth Weight [2]  2.3 grams
Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Male Maturity [1]  1 year
Clutch Size [4]  7
Clutches / Year [3]  1
Incubation [3]  16 days
Maximum Longevity [1]  13 years
Wing Span [3]  9 inches (.24 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Amur meadow steppe China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Bohai Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas  
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central China loess plateau mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changbai Mountains mixed forests China, Dem. People's Rep of Korea Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Changjiang Plain evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Daba Mountains evergreen forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Daurian forest steppe China, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Guizhou Plateau broadleaf and mixed forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Huang He Plain mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests China Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Manchurian mixed forests Republic of Korea, Dem. People's Rep of Korea, China, Russia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nenjiang River grassland China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Northeast China Plain deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Ordos Plateau steppe China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qilian Mountains conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests China Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South Taiwan monsoon rain forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows China Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Suiphun-Khanka meadows and forest meadows China, Russia Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yellow Sea saline meadow China Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
ALTO CINCA 36250 Spain  
Aggtelek Biosphere Reserve National Park II 59233 Hungary
Alto Garda Bresciano 53192 Italy  
Appennino Lucano, Valle Agri, Monte Sirino, Monte Raparo 90310 Italy  
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Bassa Valnerina: Monte Fionchi - Cascata delle Marmore 14933 Italy  
Bayerischer Wald National Park II 59790 Germany
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Boschi del Ticino 50788 Italy  
COTIELLA - SIERRA FERRERA 62948 Spain  
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve V 619089 Jilin, China  
Churdhar Sanctuary IV 19253 Himachal Pradesh, India  
Craven Limestone Complex 13166 England, United Kingdom
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Daweishan Nature Reserve V 122415 Yunnan, China  
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
EL TURBÓN Y SIERRA DE SÍS 60101 Spain  
Eastern Beskid National Park II 68484 Poland  
Fanjingshan Nature Reserve V 86145 Guizhou, China  
Fiume Po - tratto vercellese alessandrino 34859 Italy  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Fujian Wuyishan Nature Reserve V 206754 Fujian, China  
Gessi Bolognesi, Calanchi dell'Abbadessa 10616 Italy  
Grigne 17695 Italy  
HURDES 66675 Spain  
Karkonosze National Park II 45907 Poland
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kiskunsag Biosphere Reserve II 54598 Hungary  
Komsomolsky Zapovednik Ia 159168 Khabarovsk, Russia
Krivoklatsko Protected Landscape Area V 155267 Czech Republic  
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
Kronotskiy Biosphere Reserve 361480 Russia  
LOS VALLES 79029 Spain  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
MONFRAGÜE Y LAS DEHESAS DEL ENTORNO 287016 Spain  
MONTES UNIVERSALES - SIERRA DEL TREMEDAL 79316 Spain  
Mont Ventoux Biosphere Reserve 198594 France  
Monte Carpegna e Sasso Simone e Simoncello 19185 Italy  
Monti Nebrodi 173651 Italy  
Mordovsky Zapovednik Ia 79439 Mordovia, Russia
Mount Odaigahara and Mount Omine Biosphere Reserve 88558 Kyushu, Japan  
ORDESA Y MONTE PERDIDO 38568 Spain  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
POSETS - MALADETA 82205 Spain  
PUERTOS DE BECEITE 36423 Spain  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parco Naturale Adamello 53676 Italy  
Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio National Park V 333737 Italy
Parco Regionale Orobie Bergamasche 121015 Italy  
Parco Regionale Orobie Valtellinesi 56377 Italy  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Pflaelzerwald Nature Park V 438818 Germany
Polana Biosphere Reserve 50311 Slovakia  
Prespa National Park II 62043 Greece  
Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve IV 12219 Moscow, Russia
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Reserve Nationale de Camargue Biosphere Reserve 32232 France  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
RÍO GUADALOPE - MAESTRAZGO 133800 Spain  
SIERRA DE ARACENA Y PICOS DE AROCHE 461592 Spain  
SIERRA DE CANCIÁS - SILVES 19573 Spain  
SIERRA DE GATA Y VALLE DE LAS PILAS 45770 Spain  
SIERRA DE GRAZALEMA 131980 Spain  
SIERRA DE MONCAYO - LOS FAYOS - SIERRA DE ARMAS 44956 Spain  
SIERRA PELADA Y RIVERA DEL ASERRADOR 30407 Spain  
SIERRA SUBBETICA 79212 Spain  
SIERRAS CENTRALES Y EMBALSE DE ALANGE 40949 Spain  
SIERRAS DE CAZORLA, SEGURA Y LAS VILLAS 519222 Spain  
SIERRAS DE LEYRE Y ORBA 14337 Spain  
SIERRAS DE SANTO DOMINGO Y CABALLERA Y RÍO ONSELLA 88167 Spain  
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Shiga Highland Biosphere Reserve 32124 Honshu, Japan  
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Sokhondinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 521363 Chita, Russia
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Tatra Mountains Biosphere Reserve 44247 Poland  
Teberdinskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 210198 Karachay-Cherkessia, Russia
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Tianmushan Biosphere Reserve 47993 China  
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
VIÑAMALA 62053 Spain  
Vessertal-Thuringian Forest Biosphere Reserve 42250 Germany  
Viadana, Portiolo, San Benedetto Po e Ostiglia 17848 Italy  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Wolong Nature Reserve V 826140 Sichuan, China  
Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve V 567531 Yunnan, China  

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No

Prey / Diet

Bombus lucorum (White-tailed bumblebee)[5]
Corylus avellana (common filbert)[5]
Fagus sylvatica (European beech)[5]
Mesembrina meridiana (Mid-day Fly)[5]
Picea abies (Norway spruce)[5]
Stenurella melanura[5]
Yponomeuta evonymella (Full-spotted Ermel Moth)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Abraxas sylvata (Clouded Magpie)2
Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)2
Acrocephalus palustris (Marsh Warbler)2
Acronicta alni (Alder Moth)2
Aegithalos caudatus (Long-tailed Bushtit)2
Alauda arvensis (Sky Lark)2
Apodemus flavicollis (Yellow-necked mouse)3
Apodemus sylvaticus (Old World wood and field mouse)3
Apoderus coryli2
Apus apus (Common Swift)2
Atolmis rubricollis (Red-necked Footman Moth)2
Attelabus nitens2
Byctiscus betulae (Hazel Leaf Roller)2
Calliteara pudibunda (Pale Tussock)2
Campaea margaritata (Light Emerald Moth)2
Certhia familiaris (Eurasian Treecreeper)3
Chloris chloris (European Greenfinch)2
Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Hawfinch)3
Colocasia coryli (Nut-tree Tussock)2
Coloeus monedula (Western Jackdaw)2
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)2
Cosmia trapezina (Dun-bar)2
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)5
Deileptenia ribeata (Satin Beauty Moth)2
Diurnea fagella2
Eilema sororcula (Orange Footman)2
Eupsilia transversa (Satellite)2
Ficedula hypoleuca (European Pied Flycatcher)3
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)3
Garrulus glandarius (Eurasian Jay)2
Geometra papilionaria (Large Emerald)2
Glis glis (fat dormouse)3
Hirundo rustica (Barn Swallow)3
Locustella naevia (Common Grasshopper Warbler)2
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)5
Lymantria monacha (Black Arches, Nun Moth)2
Muscicapa striata (Spotted Flycatcher)2
Noctua fimbriata (Broad-bordered Yellow Underwing)2
Odontopera bidentata (Scalloped Hazel)2
Oecophora bractella2
Oenanthe oenanthe (Northern Wheatear)2
Operophtera brumata (winter moth)2
Parus major (Great Tit)6
Periparus ater (Coal Tit)5
Phalera bucephala (Buff-tip)2
Phoenicurus ochruros (Black Redstart)2
Phoenicurus phoenicurus (Common Redstart)2
Phylloscopus collybita (Common Chiffchaff)2
Phylloscopus sibillatrix (Wood Warbler)3
Phylloscopus trochilus (Willow Warbler)2
Poecile montanus (Willow Tit)3
Poecile palustris (Marsh Tit)4
Prunella modularis (Dunnock)2
Ptilodon capucina (Coxcomb Prominent)2
Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Eurasian Bullfinch)3
Regulus regulus (Goldcrest)2
Sciurus vulgaris (Eurasian red squirrel)3
Selenia tetralunaria (Purple Thorn)2
Stauropus fagi (Lobster Moth)2
Stenurella melanura2
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)2
Sylvia borin (Garden Warbler)2
Tortrix viridana (Green tortrix)2
Troglodytes troglodytes (Winter Wren)2
Turdus torquatus (Ring Ouzel)2
Turdus viscivorus (Mistle Thrush)2

Providers

Shelter 
Columba oenas (Stock Dove)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anonchotaenia globata <Unverified Name>[6]
Brachydistomum ventricosum <Unverified Name>[6]
Capiuterulepis naja <Unverified Name>[6]
Ceratophyllus fringillae[7]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[7]
Ceratophyllus garei[7]
Ceratophyllus pullatus[7]
Echinochasmus beleocephalus <Unverified Name>[6]
Hymenolepis clerci <Unverified Name>[6]
Hymenolepis naja <Unverified Name>[6]
Laterotrema vexans <Unverified Name>[6]
Leucochloridium macrostoma <Unverified Name>[6]
Leucochloridium phragmitophila <Unverified Name>[6]
Mediorhynchus micracanthus[6]
Mosesia caprimulgi <Unverified Name>[6]
Orthoskrjabinia bobica <Unverified Name>[6]
Passerilepis passeris <Unverified Name>[6]
Plagiorchis elegans[6]
Plagiorchis maculosus <Unverified Name>[6]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[6]
Tridentocapillaria parusi <Unverified Name>[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Bird Park Marlow
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbH

Distribution

Audio

Play / PauseVolume
Provided by Avisoft Bioacoustics © Author: Raimund Specht

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605 3British Trust for Ornithology 4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 5Ecology of Commanster 6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 7International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2