Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Accipitriformes > Accipitridae > Stephanoaetus > Stephanoaetus coronatus
 

Stephanoaetus coronatus (Crowned Eagle)

Wikipedia Abstract

The crowned eagle, also known as the African crowned eagle or the crowned hawk-eagle (Stephanoaetus coronatus) is a large bird of prey found in sub-Saharan Africa; in Southern Africa it is restricted to eastern areas. Its preferred habitats are principally riparian woodlands and various forests. The crowned eagle is the only extant member of the genus Stephanoaetus. A second species, the Malagasy crowned eagle (Stephanoaetus mahery) became extinct after humans settled on Madagascar.
View Wikipedia Record: Stephanoaetus coronatus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
23
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
52
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 17.9877
EDGE Score: 3.63694

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  8.10 lbs (3.67 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  112 grams
Female Weight [1]  8.68 lbs (3.94 kg)
Male Weight [1]  7.52 lbs (3.41 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [1]  15.5 %
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Vertebrates)
Diet - Ectothermic [3]  10 %
Diet - Endothermic [3]  90 %
Forages - Canopy [3]  20 %
Forages - Mid-High [3]  20 %
Forages - Understory [3]  20 %
Forages - Ground [3]  40 %
Clutch Size [4]  2
Incubation [1]  49 days
Wing Span [1]  5.4 feet (1.66 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Albany thickets South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Albertine Rift montane forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi,Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cameroonian Highlands forests Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central African mangroves Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial, Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Mangroves    
Central Congolian lowland forests Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cross-Niger transition forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East African halophytics Tanzania Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
East African mangroves Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia Afrotropic Mangroves
East African montane forests Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Arc forests Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Mozambique Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Zimbabwe montane forest-grassland mosaic Zimbabwe, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian montane forests Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Ethiopia, Eritrea Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian montane moorlands Ethiopia Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Guinean mangroves Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire Afrotropic Mangroves
Guinean montane forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Niger Delta swamp forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nigerian lowland forests Nigeria, Benin Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeastern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwestern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Serengeti volcanic grasslands Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
South Malawi montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Mozambique Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Africa mangroves South Africa, Mozambique Afrotropic Mangroves
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Rift montane forest-grassland mosaic Malawi, Tanzania Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Tanzania, Malawi, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Gabon, Congo, Democratic Rep of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian flooded grasslands Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Addo Elephant National Park II 348463 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Amboseli National Park National Reserve II 99624 Kenya
Banco National Park 6492 Côte d'Ivoire  
Burko Catchment Forest Reserve 1342 Tanzania  
Chome Catchment Forest Reserve IV 34897 Tanzania  
East Usambara Biosphere Reserve 222395 Tanzania  
Foret Classee de la Mare Aux Hippopotames Bird Reserve IV 37906 Burkina Faso  
Gombe National Park II 8799 Tanzania
Hlane Royal National Park VI 30892 Swaziland  
Itala Game Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve II 72822 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Kahuzi-Biéga National Park II 1647768 Democratic Republic of the Congo  
Kakamega Forest Reseve Forest Reserve 44820 Kenya
Katavi National Park II 1054210 Tanzania
Kenneth Stainbank Nature Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve IV 554 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Kibale National Park II 196202 Uganda
Kitumbeine Local Authority Forest Reserve   Tanzania      
Korup National Park II 322100 Cameroon
Krantzkloof Nature Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve IV 1452 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve   Mpumalanga, South Africa  
Lake Manyara National Park II 78767 Tanzania  
Lake Nakuru National Park II 46472 Kenya  
Liwonde National Park II 116740 Malawi  
Longido Local Authority Forest Reserve 5128 Tanzania  
Mahale Mountains National Park II 398414 Tanzania
Malolotja Nature Reserve IV 42044 Swaziland  
Marahoue National Park II 293884 Côte d'Ivoire  
Minziro Forest Reserve 76954 Tanzania  
Mlawula Nature Reserve IV 46444 Swaziland  
Monduli Forest Reserve 21687 Tanzania  
Mont Nimba Strict Nature Reserve Ia 11675 Côte d'Ivoire  
Mont Peko National Park II 77790 Côte d'Ivoire  
Mount Kenya Biosphere Reserve II 146694 Kenya
Mount Mulanje Forest Reserve 144452 Malawi  
Nairobi National Park II 16444 Kenya
New Germany Nature Reserve 272 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
North Park Nature Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve IV 104 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa
Nouabalï-Ndoki National Park II 1013529 Congo  
Omo Strict Natural Reserve Forest Reserve 328086 Nigeria  
Pande Forest Reserve Game Reserve IV 3094 Tanzania  
Parc National d'Odzala National Park II 3423581 Congo  
Parc National de la Comoe National Park II 2902593 Côte d'Ivoire  
Parc National de la Lopé National Park 1227419 Gabon  
Parc National de Tai National Park II 1085310 Côte d'Ivoire  
Queen Elizabeth National Park II 522052 Uganda
Reserve de Moukalaba-Dougoua (Gamba Complex) Faunal Reserve IV 266550 Gabon  
Reserve des Monts Doudou (Gamba Complex) Wildlife Management Area 656901 Gabon  
Roosfontein Nature Reserve 519 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Rubondo National Park II 50330 Tanzania
Serengeti-Ngorongoro Biosphere Reserve 5696026 Tanzania  
Shongweni Resources Reserve 42008 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Silverglen Nature Reserve 566 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Takamanda National Park II 167041 Cameroon  
Uluguru Forest Reserves   Tanzania      
Umhlanga Lagoon Provincial Nature Reserve 95 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Weenen Nature Reserve   Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Cape Floristic Region South Africa No
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No

Prey / Diet

Cercocebus atys (Sooty Mangabey)[5]
Cercopithecus ascanius (black-cheeked white-nosed monkey)[6]
Cercopithecus campbelli (Campbell's monkey)[5]
Cercopithecus diana (diana monkey)[5]
Cercopithecus petaurista (lesser white-nosed monkey)[5]
Cercopithecus wolfi (Wolf's monkey)[6]
Colobus guereza (Guereza)[6]
Colobus polykomos (king colobus)[5]
Colobus satanas (black colobus)[7]
Lophocebus albigena (gray-cheeked mangabey)[6]
Perodicticus potto (potto)[5]
Philantomba maxwellii (Maxwell's duiker)[8]
Piliocolobus badius (western red colobus)[5]
Piliocolobus rufomitratus (Tana River red colobus)[7]
Procolobus verus (olive colobus)[5]
Raphicerus melanotis (Cape grysbok)[7]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Asio capensis (Marsh Owl)1
Dendroaspis polylepis (Black Mamba)1
Necrosyrtes monachus (Hooded Vulture)1
Panthera pardus (Leopard)1

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Fort Worth Zoological Park
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardens
San Diego Zoo
San Francisco Zoological Gardens
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo

Distribution

Takamanda Forest Reserve;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
5Primate Remains from African Crowned Eagle (Stephanoaetus coronatus) Nests in Ivory Coast’s Tai Forest: Implications for Primate Predation and Early Hominid Taphonomy in South Africa, W. Scott McGraw, Catherine Cooke, and Susanne Shultz, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 131:151–165 (2006)
6Predatory behavior of crowned hawk-eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) in Kibale National Park, Uganda, John C. Mitani · William J. Sanders Jeremiah S. Lwanga · Tammy L. Windfelder, Behav Ecol Sociobiol (2001) 49:187–195
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Cephalophus maxwellii, Katherine Ralls, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 31, pp. 1-4 (1973)
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access