Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Turdidae > Turdus > Turdus philomelos
 

Turdus philomelos (Song Thrush)

Wikipedia Abstract

The song thrush (Turdus philomelos) is a thrush that breeds across much of Eurasia. It has brown upperparts and black-spotted cream or buff underparts and has three recognised subspecies.
View Wikipedia Record: Turdus philomelos

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
15
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
34
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 12.2002
EDGE Score: 2.58024

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  68 grams
Birth Weight [2]  6 grams
Female Maturity [3]  1 year
Male Maturity [3]  1 year
Clutch Size [5]  4
Incubation [4]  14 days
Maximum Longevity [3]  18 years
Migration [6]  Intercontinental
Speed [7]  24.61 MPH (11 m/s)
Wing Span [7]  14 inches (.36 m)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests Greece, Turkey, Macedonia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Al Hajar montane woodlands Oman Afrotropic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Alashan Plateau semi-desert China, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Alps conifer and mixed forests Italy, France, Switzerland, Slovenia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai alpine meadow and tundra China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Altai montane forest and forest steppe China, Kazakstan, Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Altai steppe and semi-desert Kazahkstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests Turkey Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra Australia, New Zealand Australasia Tundra    
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Egypt , Iraq, Jordan, Syria Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic mixed forests France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Balkan mixed forests Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Baltic mixed forests Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Caledon conifer forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Cantabrian mixed forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Carpathian montane forests Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Iran, Azerbaijan Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Caucasus mixed forests Georgia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Celtic broadleaf forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Central Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Central Anatolian steppe Turkey Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Central European mixed forests Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldovia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Chatham Island temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Crete Mediterranean forests Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Cyprus Mediterranean forests Cyprus Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, Yugoslavia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
East European forest steppe Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Iran, Turkey, Armenia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Syria Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Elburz Range forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests    
Emin Valley steppe China, Kazakstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
English Lowlands beech forests United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests    
Eritrean coastal desert Eritrea Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert Oman, United Arab Emirates Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Iberian conifer forests Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Spain, Portugal Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Illyrian deciduous forests Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Junggar Basin semi-desert China, Kazakstan, Mongolia Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kola Peninsula tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe Morocco Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mesopotamian shrub desert Iraq, Syria, Jordan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Middle East steppe Syria, Iraq Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Mongolian-Manchurian grassland China, Mongolia Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Atlantic moist mixed forests Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests France, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests Turkey Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Northwest Iberian montane forests Portugal, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra Russia Palearctic Tundra
Pamir alpine desert and tundra China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Pannonian mixed forests Austria, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Pindus Mountains mixed forests Albania, Greece Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Pontic steppe Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests Spain, France, Andorra Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Rodope montane mixed forests Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sahara desert Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Algeria, Mauritania, Mali, Chad, Niger Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Saharan halophytics Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Mauritania, Western Sahara Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Sarmatic mixed forests Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra Mongolia, Russia Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Scandinavian and Russian taiga Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia Palearctic Boreal Forests/Taiga
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests Norway Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands Norway, Sweden, Finland Palearctic Tundra
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert Iran, Iraq, Pakistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Saharan steppe and woodlands Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Morocco Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwestern Arabian foothills savanna Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Oman Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Taklimakan desert China Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tian Shan montane conifer forests China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Palearctic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh Iran, Iraq Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Western European broadleaf forests Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Zagros Mountains forest steppe Iran Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
ANTICHASIA ORI KAI METEORA 178032 Greece  
Alte Valli Stura e Maira 103806 Italy  
Amudarya Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 152861 Lebap, Turkmenistan  
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Badghyz Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 215164 Turkmenistan  
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Castro Verde 210891 Portugal  
Chernye Zemli Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik IV 621951 Russia  
Costa Sudoeste 183883 Portugal  
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU KAI EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PET 109185 Greece  
DESFILADEROS DEL RÍO MARTÍN 110851 Spain  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Douro Internacional e Vale do Águeda 125502 Portugal  
ETHNIKO THALASSIO PARKO ALONNISOU - VOREION SPORADON, ANATOLIKI SKOPELOS 615652 Greece      
Emine 164580 Bulgaria  
Estuário do Tejo 110634 Portugal  
Felsõ-kiskunsági szikes puszták és turjánvidék 103542 Hungary  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Fuentes del Narcea y del Ibias 126128 Spain  
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
Itäisen Suomenlahden saaristo ja vedet 236302 Finland    
KARLA - MAVROVOUNI - KEFALOVRYSO VELESTINOU - NEOCHORI 107331 Greece  
KOILADA ACHELOOU KAI ORI VALTOU 115492 Greece  
KOILADA KAI EKVOLES SPERCHEIOU - MALIAKOS KOLPOS 117491 Greece  
Kamchiyska Mountain 219637 Bulgaria  
Katunsky Biosphere Reserve 393162 Altai, Russia
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kopetdagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 125705 Turkmenistan  
Kotlenska Mountain 245286 Bulgaria  
Krivoklatsko Protected Landscape Area V 155267 Czech Republic  
LA SERENA Y SIERRAS PERIFÉRICAS 379806 Spain  
LEFKA ORI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 131864 Greece  
LIMNI KERKINI - KROUSIA - KORYFES OROUS BELES, ANGISTRO - CHAROPO 193493 Greece  
Lagorai 114140 Italy  
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Ludogorie 225827 Bulgaria  
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Ia 233540 Tasmania, Australia  
Massiccio del Monte Pollino e Monte Alpi 217581 Italy  
Merenkurkun saaristo 316695 Finland    
Monchique 187820 Portugal  
Mont Ventoux Biosphere Reserve 198594 France  
Monte dei Sette Fratelli 99969 Italy  
Montesinho/Nogueira 266900 Portugal  
Mount Aspiring National Park II 473907 South Island, New Zealand
Mourão/Moura/Barrancos 209832 Portugal  
Murgia Alta 311059 Italy  
Northern Karelian Biosphere Reserve 864869 Finland  
OREINOS EVROS - KOILADA DEREIOU 120853 Greece  
OROS TAYGETOS - LAGKADA TRYPIS 120553 Greece  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio National Park V 333737 Italy
Parco Regionale Orobie Bergamasche 121015 Italy  
Pechoro-Ilychskiy Biosphere Reserve 3098091 Russia  
Picentini 157557 Italy  
Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau 207644 Bulgaria  
Puszcza Kampinoska Biosphere Reserve 188373 Poland  
Repetek Biosphere Reserve 102089 Turkmenistan  
Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Nevada Biosphere Reserve 424147 Spain  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Rila 200269 Bulgaria  
Rios Sabor e Maçãs 125253 Portugal  
RÍO GUADALOPE - MAESTRAZGO 133800 Spain  
SIERRA DE ALCUBIERRE 103846 Spain  
SIERRA DE GREDOS 213494 Spain  
SIERRA NEVADA 424554 Spain  
SIERRAS DE CAZORLA, SEGURA Y LAS VILLAS 519222 Spain  
Sakar 310629 Bulgaria  
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Serra do Gerês 156759 Portugal  
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Sredna Gora 244788 Bulgaria  
Stora Sjofallet National Park II 314943 Sweden
Strandzha 285202 Bulgaria  
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Syunt-Khasardagh Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 105306 Turkmenistan  
Tongariro National Park II 196174 North Island, New Zealand
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Trigrad-Mursalitsa 136717 Bulgaria  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Tzentralen Balkan 177099 Bulgaria  
Vale do Guadiana 189151 Portugal  
Vasilyovska Mountain 112364 Bulgaria  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Western Balkan 362801 Bulgaria  
Western Strandzha 132984 Bulgaria  
Zapadni Rodopi 178482 Bulgaria  
Zlatiata 107477 Bulgaria  

Ecosystems

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife Species Factsheet: View Factsheet
Name Location  IBA Criteria   Website   Climate   Land Use 
Buzulukski forest Russia (European) A1, B2, B3
Central Balkan Bulgaria A1, A3, B2, B3, C1, C6
Foreste Casentinesi Italy B2, B3, C6
Kočevsko-Kolpa Slovenia B2, B3
Lapland Biosphere Reserve Russia (European) A3, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Ludogorie Bulgaria B2, B3, C6
Pirin Bulgaria A3, B2, B3, C6
Rila Bulgaria A3, B2, B3, C6
River Mura Slovenia B2, B3
Samars'kyj forest Ukraine A1, A4i, B1i, B2, B3
Sredna Gora Bulgaria A1, B2, B3, C1, C6
Triglav National Park Slovenia A3, B2, B3
Zhigulevsk Nature Reserve Russia (European) A1, B2, B3

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Caucasus Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Irano-Anatolian Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No
Mountains of Central Asia Afghanistan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan No

Prey / Diet

Alectryon excelsus[8]
Coprosma robusta[9]
Cornus sanguinea (bloodtwig dogwood)[10]
Crataegus monogyna (Common Hawthorn)[11]
Dacrycarpus dacrydioides (kahika)[9]
Euonymus europaeus (European spindletree)[12]
Frangula alnus subsp. alnus (Glossy Buckthorn)[11]
Hedera helix (Algerian ivy)[10]
Hedycarya arborea (Pigeonwood)[8]
Ilex aquifolium (English holly)[10]
Leycesteria formosa (Himalayan honeysuckle)[9]
Ligustrum vulgare (European privet)[10]
Lonicera xylosteum (dwarf honeysuckle)[11]
Lumbricus rubellus <Unverified Name>[13]
Malus sylvestris (Crab Apple)[10]
Melicytus ramiflorus subsp. ramiflorus[9]
Muehlenbeckia australis (muehlenbeckia)[9]
Nestegis cunninghamii[8]
Phillyrea latifolia[14]
Pistacia lentiscus (mastic tree)[14]
Podocarpus cunninghamii (Hall totara)[9]
Prumnopitys taxifolia (Matai)[8]
Prunus avium (Wild Cherry)[10]
Prunus padus (Bird Cherry)[10]
Prunus serotina (Black Cherry)[11]
Prunus spinosa (Blackthorn)[10]
Rhamnus cathartica (Hart's thorn)[10]
Rhopalostylis sapida[8]
Ripogonum scandens[8]
Rosa canina (Dog Rose)[11]
Sambucus nigra (European black elderberry)[10]
Sambucus racemosa (red elderberry)[11]
Schefflera digitata (Schefflera)[9]
Solanum dulcamara (deadly nightshade)[10]
Sorbus aria (Whitebeam)[10]
Sorbus aucuparia (Mountain Ash)[10]
Sorbus torminalis (Wild Service Tree)[11]
Stenurella melanura[13]
Taxus baccata (Common yew)[10]
Viburnum opulus (European cranberrybush)[10]
Viburnum rigidum (laurustinus)[14]
Viscum album (European mistletoe)[11]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Abraxas grossulariata (Magpie Moth)5
Acasis viretata6
Acherontia atropos (Death's-head hawk moth)5
Acronicta psi (Grey Dagger Moth)5
Alsophila aescularia (March Moth)5
Anthornis melanura (New Zealand Bellbird)7
Argyresthia semifusca4
Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Carnation Tortrix)6
Calliteara pudibunda (Pale Tussock)4
Celastrina argiolus (Holly Blue Butterfly)5
Coleophora anatipennella5
Colocasia coryli (Nut-tree Tussock)4
Columba palumbus (Common Wood Pigeon)4
Conistra vaccinii (Chestnut)4
Cosmia trapezina (Dun-bar)6
Crocallis elinguaria (Scalloped Oak Moth)5
Cyanistes caeruleus (Blue Tit)6
Diloba caeruleocephala5
Ditula angustiorana (Red-barred Tortrix)4
Electrophaes corylata (Broken-barred Carpet Moth)4
Eriogaster lanestris (Small Eggar)5
Erithacus rubecula (European Robin)16
Eupithecia exiguata (Mottled Pug)4
Fagocyba cruenta4
Ficedula hypoleuca (European Pied Flycatcher)5
Gastropacha quercifolia (Lappet)4
Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae (New Zealand Pigeon)8
Iphiclides podalirius (Scarce Swallowtail)4
Lasiocampa quercus (Oak Eggar)5
Lithophane hepatica6
Lomographa temerata (Clouded Silver)4
Lophophanes cristatus (European Crested Tit)4
Lyonetia clerkella (Apple Leaf Miner Moth)4
Melanchra persicariae (Dot Moth)4
Naenia typica (Gothic)4
Noctua fimbriata (Broad-bordered Yellow Underwing)4
Nola cucullatella (Short-cloaked Moth)4
Odontopera bidentata (Scalloped Hazel)4
Opisthograptis luteolata (Brimstone Moth)5
Ourapteryx sambucaria (Swallow-tailed Moth)5
Parus major (Great Tit)4
Phalera bucephala (Buff-tip)4
Plagodis pulveraria (Barred Umber Moth)4
Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae (Tui)11
Saperda scalaris6
Saturnia pavonia (Emperor moth)5
Smerinthus ocellata4
Sphinx ligustri (Sphinx moth)5
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)12
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)10
Trichiura crataegi (Pale Eggar)4
Trichosurus vulpecula (Common Brushtail)4
Turdus iliacus (Redwing)10
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)34
Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare)7
Turdus viscivorus (Mistle Thrush)12
Yponomeuta padella (Common Hawthorn Ermel Moth)5
Zosterops lateralis (Silvereye)10

Predators

Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk)[11]
Accipiter nisus (Eurasian Sparrowhawk)[13]
Aegolius funereus (Boreal Owl)[11]
Asio otus (Long-eared Owl)[13]
Milvus migrans (Black Kite)[13]
Strix aluco (Tawny Owl)[13]

Providers

Shelter 
Crataegus laevigata (Midland Hawthorn)[13]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Aonchotheca exilis <Unverified Name>[15]
Aploparaksis dujardinii[15]
Baruscapillaria corvorum <Unverified Name>[15]
Baruscapillaria ovopunctata <Unverified Name>[15]
Baruscapillaria resecta <Unverified Name>[15]
Brachylaima arcuatus <Unverified Name>[15]
Brachylaima mesostoma <Unverified Name>[15]
Brachylecithum fringillae <Unverified Name>[15]
Capillaria exile <Unverified Name>[15]
Capillaria inflexa <Unverified Name>[15]
Capillaria ovopunctata <Unverified Name>[15]
Capillaria similis <Unverified Name>[15]
Cardiofilaria inornata <Unverified Name>[15]
Cardiofilaria pavlovskyi <Unverified Name>[15]
Carinema campanae <Unverified Name>[15]
Ceratophyllus borealis[16]
Ceratophyllus fringillae[16]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[16]
Chandlerella hispanica <Unverified Name>[15]
Choanotaenia unicoronata <Unverified Name>[15]
Cyclocoelum mutabile[15]
Cyclocoelum polonicum <Unverified Name>[15]
Dicranotaenia crenata <Unverified Name>[15]
Dilepis brachyarthra <Unverified Name>[15]
Dilepis turdi <Unverified Name>[15]
Dilepis undula[15]
Diplotriaena henryi <Unverified Name>[15]
Echinostoma revolutum[15]
Euamphimerus pancreaticus <Unverified Name>[15]
Eucoleus contortus <Unverified Name>[15]
Eufilaria delicata <Unverified Name>[15]
Fernandezia goizuetai <Unverified Name>[15]
Fernandezia spinosissima <Unverified Name>[15]
Laterotrema vexans <Unverified Name>[15]
Leucochloridium paradoxum <Unverified Name>[15]
Leucochloridium perturbatum[15]
Leucochloridium turdi <Unverified Name>[15]
Lutztrema attenuatum <Unverified Name>[15]
Lutztrema monenteron[15]
Lyperosomum petiolatum <Unverified Name>[15]
Mayhewia serpentulus <Unverified Name>[15]
Michajlovia migrata <Unverified Name>[15]
Monopylidium borealis <Unverified Name>[15]
Monopylidium parinum <Unverified Name>[15]
Monopylidium passerum <Unverified Name>[15]
Monopylidium spinoscapite <Unverified Name>[15]
Monorchilepis dujardini <Unverified Name>[15]
Morishitium dollfusi[15]
Mosesia sittae <Unverified Name>[15]
Notopentorchis vesiculigera <Unverified Name>[15]
Ornithofilaria mavis <Unverified Name>[15]
Passerilepis crenata[15]
Passerilepis passeris <Unverified Name>[15]
Philopterus turdi[17]
Plagiorchis multiglandularis <Unverified Name>[15]
Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus[15]
Porrocaecum ensicaudatum[15]
Porrocaecum semiteres <Unverified Name>[15]
Prosthogonimus ovatus[15]
Ptilotolepis philomelae <Unverified Name>[15]
Ptilotolepis raymondi <Unverified Name>[15]
Sobolevitaenia verulamii <Unverified Name>[15]
Spasspasskya dubinini <Unverified Name>[15]
Splendidofilaria boehmi <Unverified Name>[15]
Splendidofilaria mavis <Unverified Name>[15]
Syngamus merulae <Unverified Name>[15]
Syngamus trachea (gapeworm)[15]
Unciunia raymondi <Unverified Name>[15]
Urogonimus macrostomum <Unverified Name>[15]
Urotocus rossitensis <Unverified Name>[15]
Variolepis farciminosa[15]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

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Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Lotherton Bird Garden
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnberg
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternario

Distribution

Audio

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Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Cramp, S.; Simmons, K.E.L.; Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa Vols 1-9. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605 3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 4British Trust for Ornithology 5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303 6Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 7Alerstam T, Rosén M, Bäckman J, Ericson PGP, Hellgren O (2007) Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects. PLoS Biol 5(8): e197. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050197 8THE IMPORTANCE OF BIRDS AS BROWSERS, POLLINATORS AND SEED DISPERSERS IN NEW ZEALAND FORESTS, M.N. Clout and J. R. Hay, NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, VOL 12, (SUPPLEMENT) 1989, pp. 27-33 9FLESHY FRUITS OF INDIGENOUS AND ADVENTIVE PLANTS IN THE DIET OF BIRDS IN FOREST REMNANTS, NELSON, NEW ZEALAND, PETER A. WILLIAMS and BRIAN J. KARL, New Zealand Journal of Ecology (1996) 20(2): 127-145 10Birds and berries: a study of an ecological interaction. Calton, Great Britain, Snow B.K., Snow D.W., 1988, T & AD Poyser. 268 p. 11Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 12VARIATIONS IN SPINDLE EUONYMUS EUROPAEUS CONSUMPTION BY FRUGIVOROUS BIRDS DURING THE FRUITING SEASON, Ángel HERNÁNDEZ, Ardeola 50(2), 2003, 171-180 13Ecology of Commanster 14Recruitment of a Mast-Fruiting, Bird-Dispersed Tree: Bridging Frugivore Activity and Seedling Establishment, Carlos M. Herrera, Pedro Jordano, Luis López-Soria, Juan A. Amat, Ecological Monographs, 64(3), 1994, pp. 315-344 15Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 16International Flea Database 17Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
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