Animalia > Chordata > Aves > Passeriformes > Zosteropidae > Zosterops > Zosterops lateralis
 

Zosterops lateralis (Silvereye)

Wikipedia Abstract

The silvereye or wax-eye (Zosterops lateralis) is a very small omnivorous passerine bird of the south-west pacific. In Australia and New Zealand its common name is sometimes white-eye, but this name is more commonly used to refer to all members of the genus Zosterops, or the entire family Zosteropidae.
View Wikipedia Record: Zosterops lateralis

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
0
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
6
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 1.49306
EDGE Score: 0.91351

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  12.9 grams
Birth Weight [2]  1.3 grams
Female Maturity [4]  1 year
Male Maturity [4]  1 year
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Nectarivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  30 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  40 %
Diet - Nectar [3]  20 %
Diet - Plants [3]  10 %
Forages - Canopy [3]  20 %
Forages - Mid-High [3]  20 %
Forages - Understory [3]  50 %
Forages - Ground [3]  10 %
Clutch Size [5]  3
Maximum Longevity [4]  13 years

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra Australia, New Zealand Australasia Tundra    
Australian Alps montane grasslands Australia Australasia Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Brigalow tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cantebury-Otago tussock grasslands New Zealand Australasia Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cape York Peninsula tropical savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Carnarvon xeric shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Chatham Island temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests  
Coolgardie woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Eastern Australia mulga shrublands Australia Australasia Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Australian temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Einasleigh upland savanna Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Esperance mallee Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Eyre and York mallee Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Fiji tropical dry forests Fiji Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests  
Fiji tropical moist forests Fiji Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests    
Fiordland temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Jarrah-Karri forest and shrublands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Kermadec Islands subtropical moist forests New Zealand Oceania Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Mount Lofty woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Murray-Darling woodlands and mallee Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub  
Naracoorte woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Nelson Coast temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
New Caledonia dry forests France Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
New Caledonia rain forests France Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Island temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northland temperate kauri forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Nullarbor Plains xeric shrublands Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Queensland tropical rain forests Australia Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Rakiura Island temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Richmond temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
South Island montane grasslands New Zealand Australasia Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southeast Australia temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southeast Australia temperate savanna Australia Australasia Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southland temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Southwest Australia savanna Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Southwest Australia woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Swan Coastal Plain Scrub and Woodlands Australia Australasia Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Tasmanian Central Highland forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tasmanian temperate forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tasmanian temperate rain forests Australia Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Tirari-Sturt stony desert Australia Australasia Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Vanuatu rain forests Vanuatu Australasia Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Westland temperate forests New Zealand Australasia Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Arthur's Pass National Park II 257008 South Island, New Zealand
Bald Rock National Park II 21998 New South Wales, Australia
Coorong National Park II 121235 South Australia, Australia
Dunggir National Park II 6402 New South Wales, Australia
Fitzgerald River National Park II 732417 Western Australia, Australia
Flinders Chase National Park II 81245 South Australia, Australia
Girraween National Park II 28978 Queensland, Australia
Grampians National Park II 416373 Victoria, Australia
Hattah-Kulkyne NP and Murray-Kulkyne Park National Park II 122831 Victoria, Australia
Kooragang Nature Reserve IV 8300 New South Wales, Australia  
Kosciuszko National Park II 1705480 New South Wales, Australia
Lamington National Park II 50970 Queensland, Australia
Lavinia Nature Reserve State Reserve II 17390 Tasmania, Australia    
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Ia 233540 Tasmania, Australia  
Maria Island National Park II 28488 Tasmania, Australia
Maria National Park II 5735 New South Wales, Australia
Mount Aspiring National Park II 473907 South Island, New Zealand
Norfolk Island National Park II 1723 Australian external territories, Australia  
Riverland Biosphere Reserve Ia 1490891 South Australia, Australia
Shoalwater and Corio Bays Area Ramsar Site   Queensland, Australia
South Taupo Wetland   North Island, New Zealand      
Stirling Range National Park II 281371 Western Australia, Australia
Sundown National Park II 30557 Queensland, Australia
Tongariro National Park II 196174 North Island, New Zealand
Wilson's Promontory National Park II 119279 Victoria, Australia

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
East Melanesian Islands Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu No
New Caledonia New Caledonia No
New Zealand New Zealand No
Polynesia-Micronesia Fiji, Micronesia, Polynesia, Samoa, Tonga, United States No
Southwest Australia Australia No

Prey / Diet

Arbutus unedo (strawberry tree)[6]
Aristotelia fruticosa (Mountain Wineberry)[6]
Ascarina lucida (Hutu)[7]
Asparagus asparagoides (African asparagus fern)[6]
Berberis glaucocarpa[6]
Coprosma rhamnoides[6]
Coprosma robusta[6]
Coprosma rotundifolia[6]
Cordyline australis (cabbage tree)[8]
Coriaria arborea[6]
Dacrycarpus dacrydioides (kahika)[6]
Dacrydium cupressinum (New Zealand red pine)[7]
Dysoxylum spectabile[9]
Euonymus europaeus (European spindletree)[6]
Ficus asperiuscula[10]
Ficus leucotricha (desert fig)[10]
Ficus opposita[10]
Ficus superba (Sea Fig)[10]
Fuchsia excorticata[6]
Geniostoma rupestre var. ligustrifolium[9]
Griselinia littoralis (New Zealand broadleaf)[7]
Ileostylus micranthus (Mistletoe)[6]
Ilex aquifolium (English holly)[8]
Leucopogon fasciculatus[6]
Leycesteria formosa (Himalayan honeysuckle)[6]
Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet)[6]
Lonicera japonica (Chinese honeysuckle)[6]
Macropiper excelsum[6]
Melicytus ramiflorus subsp. ramiflorus[6]
Muehlenbeckia australis (muehlenbeckia)[6]
Neopanax arboreus (Five Finger)[6]
Passiflora mollissima (banana passionflower)[6]
Pittosporum tenuifolium (tawhiwhi)[6]
Podocarpus cunninghamii (Hall totara)[6]
Prumnopitys taxifolia (Matai)[6]
Pseudopanax crassifolius (lancewood)[7]
Raukaua simplex[7]
Sambucus nigra (European black elderberry)[6]
Schefflera digitata (Schefflera)[6]
Solanum aviculare (Kangaroo Apple)[6]
Solanum decipiens (Black or Garden Nightshade)[6]
Solanum pseudocapsicum (madeira winter cherry)[6]
Vitex lucens (Puriri)[9]
Weinmannia racemosa[7]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acanthis flammea (Common Redpoll)1
Acanthisitta chloris (Rifleman)1
Ailuroedus crassirostris (Green Catbird)3
Alisterus scapularis (Australian King Parrot)1
Anthornis melanura (New Zealand Bellbird)22
Cacatua leadbeateri (Major Mitchell's Cockatoo)1
Cacomantis variolosus (Brush Cuckoo)1
Callaeas cinereus (Kokako)2
Cervus elaphus (wapiti or elk)1
Chalcophaps indica (Common Emerald Dove)2
Chlamydera maculata (Spotted Bowerbird)1
Chlamydera nuchalis (Great Bowerbird)1
Columba livia (Rock Pigeon)1
Coracina novaehollandiae (Black-faced Cuckooshrike)1
Corvus orru (Torresian Crow)1
Cracticus nigrogularis (Pied Butcherbird)1
Cyanoramphus auriceps (Yellow-crowned Parakeet)5
Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae (Red-fronted Parakeet)1
Cyclopsitta diophthalma (Double-eyed Fig Parrot)2
Ducula bicolor (Pied Imperial Pigeon)1
Entomyzon cyanotis (Blue-faced Honeyeater)1
Eolophus roseicapilla (Galah)1
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)3
Fringilla coelebs (Common Chaffinch)3
Gallirallus australis (Weka)2
Gerygone igata (Grey Gerygone)5
Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae (New Zealand Pigeon)8
Lichenostomus keartlandi (Grey-headed Honeyeater)1
Lopholaimus antarcticus (Topknot Pigeon)3
Macropygia amboinensis (Brown Cuckoo-Dove)3
Manorina melanocephala (Noisy Miner)1
Meliphaga lewinii (Lewin's Honeyeater)3
Mohoua albicilla (Whitehead)1
Mohoua ochrocephala (Yellowhead)1
Nestor meridionalis (New Zealand Kaka)5
Nestor notabilis (Kea)1
Notiomystis cincta (Stitchbird)6
Ocyphaps lophotes (Crested Pigeon)1
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)2
Oriolus sagittatus (Olive-backed Oriole)1
Petroica macrocephala (Tomtit)2
Platycercus elegans (Crimson Rosella)1
Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae (Tui)18
Prunella modularis (Dunnock)1
Pteropus alecto (black flying fox)1
Pteropus poliocephalus (gray-headed flying fox)2
Ptilinopus magnificus (Wompoo Fruit Dove)2
Ptilinopus regina (Rose-crowned Fruit Dove)2
Ptilonorhynchus violaceus (Satin Bowerbird)3
Ptiloris paradiseus (Paradise Riflebird)1
Rhipidura fuliginosa (New Zealand Fantail)3
Rupicapra rupicapra (chamois)7
Scythrops novaehollandiae (Channel-billed Cuckoo)2
Sericulus chrysocephalus (Regent Bowerbird)3
Sphecotheres viridis (Green Figbird)3
Strepera graculina (Pied Currawong)2
Strigops habroptila (Kakapo)1
Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling)4
Trichosurus vulpecula (Common Brushtail)6
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)19
Turdus philomelos (Song Thrush)10

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anonchotaenia clelandi <Unverified Name>[11]
Ceratophyllus gallinae (European chicken flea)[12]
Menacanthus eurysternus[13]
Pagipsylla galliralli[12]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Auckland Zoological Park
Cleland Wildlife Park
Healesville Sanctuarylateralis
Melbourne Museum
Taronga Zoo
 lateralis

Distribution

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Robertson, HA, AH Whitaker, BM Fitzgerald 1983. Morphometrics of forest birds in the Orongorongo Valley, Wellington, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 10: 87-98
2Terje Lislevand, Jordi Figuerola, and Tamás Székely. 2007. Avian body sizes in relation to fecundity, mating system, display behavior, and resource sharing. Ecology 88:1605
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
5Jetz W, Sekercioglu CH, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) The Worldwide Variation in Avian Clutch Size across Species and Space PLoS Biol 6(12): e303. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060303
6FLESHY FRUITS OF INDIGENOUS AND ADVENTIVE PLANTS IN THE DIET OF BIRDS IN FOREST REMNANTS, NELSON, NEW ZEALAND, PETER A. WILLIAMS and BRIAN J. KARL, New Zealand Journal of Ecology (1996) 20(2): 127-145
7O'Donnell, Colin F J and Dilks, Peter J, Foods and Foraging of Forest Birds in Temperate Rainforest, South. Westland, New Zealand, NZ J Ecology 18(2) (1994) pp. 87-107
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
9The relative importance of birds and insects as pollinators of the New Zealand flora, Sandra H. Anderson, New Zealand Journal of Ecology (2003) 27(2): 83-94
10"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
11Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
12International Flea Database
13Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access