Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Primates > Lemuroidea > Lemuridae > Eulemur > Eulemur macaco

Eulemur macaco (black lemur)

Synonyms: Lemur leucomystax; Lemur macaco niger

Wikipedia Abstract

The black lemur (Eulemur macaco) is a species of lemur from the family Lemuridae. Like all lemurs, it is endemic to Madagascar. Originally, the species was thought to have two subspecies, Eulemur macaco macaco and Eulemur macaco flavifrons, both of which were elevated to species status by Mittermeier et al. in 2008 to Eulemur macaco and Eulemur flavifrons respectively. The most startling difference between the two species is the eye colour; Eulemur flavifrons, the blue-eyed black lemur, has blue eyes and is the only primate other than humans to have blue eyes, while Eulemur macaco, the black lemur, has brown or orange eyes, and also has ear tufts.
View Wikipedia Record: Eulemur macaco

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 10.21
EDGE Score: 3.8


Adult Weight [2]  5.51 lbs (2.50 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  75 grams
Female Maturity [2]  1 year 6 months
Male Maturity [2]  1 year 6 months
Diet [3]  Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  30 %
Diet - Plants [3]  70 %
Forages - Arboreal [3]  100 %
Arboreal [1]  Yes
Gestation [2]  4 months 7 days
Litter Size [2]  1
Litters / Year [2]  1
Maximum Longevity [2]  36 years
Weaning [2]  5 months 2 days


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Madagascar dry deciduous forests Madagascar Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Madagascar mangroves Madagascar Afrotropic Mangroves
Madagascar subhumid forests Madagascar Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
La Réserve Naturelle Intégrale de Lokobe Strict Nature Reserve Ia 3938 Madagascar    
Manongarivo Special Reserve 102549 Madagascar      
Réserve Naturelle Intégrale de Tsaratanana Strict Nature Reserve Ia 122363 Madagascar  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles Yes

Prey / Diet

Albizia lebbeck (raom tree)[4]
Albizia saman (Rain Tree)[4]
Anacardium occidentale (cashew)[4]
Annona reticulata (custard apple)[4]
Aphloia theiformis (Mountain Peach)[5]
Carica papaya (papaya)[4]
Ficus assimilis[6]
Ficus polita (Wild Rubber Fig)[4]
Grangeria porosa[5]
Landolphia myrtifolia[4]
Mangifera indica (mango)[4]
Monanthotaxis pilosa[4]
Smilax anceps[4]
Sorindeia madagascariensis[4]
Terminalia catappa (india almond)[5]
Xanthocercis madagascariensis[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alectroenas madagascariensis (Madagascar Blue Pigeon)1
Bycanistes brevis (Silvery-cheeked Hornbill)1
Bycanistes bucinator (Trumpeter Hornbill)1
Cercocebus galeritus (Tana River mangabey)1
Cercopithecus mitis (blue monkey)1
Epomophorus gambianus (Gambian epauletted fruit bat)3
Eulemur fulvus (brown lemur)4
Gorilla gorilla (gorilla)1
Hapalemur aureus (golden bamboo lemur)1
Hapalemur griseus (bamboo lemur)1
Hypsignathus monstrosus (hammer-headed fruit bat)1
Hypsipetes madagascariensis (Malagasy Bulbul)1
Loxodonta africana (African Bush Elephant)1
Micropteropus pusillus (Peters's dwarf epauletted fruit bat)3
Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee)1
Paraxerus lucifer (black and red bush squirrel)1
Pteropus niger (greater mascarene flying fox)1
Pteropus rodricensis (Rodriguez flying fox)1
Pteropus rufus (Madagascan flying fox)1
Pteropus voeltzkowi (Pemba flying fox)1
Tauraco schalowi (Schalow's Turaco)1


Parasitized by 
Bacillus cereus[7]
Escherichia coli (E. coli)[7]
Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae)[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africa Alive!macaco
Apenheul Primate Parkflavifrons
Banham Zoo Ltd.flavifrons
Bramble Park Zoomacaco
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Burger's Zoomacaco
Cameron Park Zooflavifrons
Cleveland Metroparks Zooflavifrons
Colchester Zooflavifrons
Cologne Zooflavifrons
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardensmacaco
Denver Zoological Gardens
Drusillas Zoo Park
Dudley Zoological Gardensmacaco
Duke Lemur Centerflavifrons
Edinburgh Zoo-Scottish National Zooflavifrons
Endangered Madagascarmacaco
Exmoor Zoological Parkmacaco
Giza Zoological Garden
Henson Robinson Zoomacaco
HeverJardin d'Oiseaux Tropicauxmacaco
Indianapolis Zooflavifrons
Isle of Wight Zoomacaco
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoomacaco
Le Parc des Felinsmacaco
Little Rock Zoological Gardensflavifrons
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardensflavifrons
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquariummacaco
Miami Metrozoomacaco
Mountain View Conservation & Breedingmacaco
Mulhouse Zooflavifrons
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africamacaco
Oakland Zooflavifrons
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Opolu, Opolemacaco
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoomacaco
Paradise Wildlife Parkmacaco
Parc de la Haute Touche (MNHN)macaco
Parc de Lunaretflavifrons
Parc Merveilleuxmacaco
Parc Paysager Et Animalier Du Reynou
Parc Zoologique de La Palmyreflavifrons
Parc Zoologique de Tregomeur
Parco Natura Viva
Point Defiance Zoo & Aquariummacaco
Racine Zoological Gardensflavifrons
Riga Zoomacaco
Rodbaston Collegemacaco
Rome Zoo-Fondazione Bioparco di Romamacaco
Saint Louis Zoological Parkmacaco
San Diego Zoomacaco
San Francisco Zoological Gardensflavifrons
Santa Ana Zoomacaco
Sedgwick County Zoomacaco
South Lakes Wild Animal Parkmacaco
St. Paul's Como Zooflavifrons
STB Kanta - Friguia Zoomacaco
The Philadelphia Zooflavifrons
The Tisch Family Zoological Gardensmacaco
Thoiry Zoological Park
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbHmacaco
Tygerberg Zooparkmacaco
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Zoo d'Assonmacaco
Zoo de Doue-la-Fontainemacaco
Zoo de Fuengirola (Rain Forest SL)macaco
Zoo de Jurquesmacaco
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternariomacaco
Zoo Dresden GmbHmacaco
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaia
Zoological Garden Praguemacaco
Zoologicka zahrada Ostravaflavifrons
Zoologicka zahrada Bojnicemacaco
Zoologicka Zahrada Jihlavamacaco
Zoologicka Zahrada Kosicemacaco
Zoologicka zahrada Olomoucmacaco
ZooWorld Zoological Botanical Conserv.macaco

Range Map




Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Diet, Nutritional Ecology, and Birth Season of Eulemur macaco in an Anthropogenic Forest in Madagascar, Bruno Simmen & Françoise Bayart & André Marez & Annette Hladik, Int J Primatol (2007) 28:1253–1266
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
7Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access