Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Primates > Lemuroidea > Lemuridae > Varecia > Varecia variegata

Varecia variegata (ruffed lemur)

Wikipedia Abstract

The black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata) is the more endangered of the two species of ruffed lemurs, both of which are endemic to the island of Madagascar. Despite having a larger range than the red ruffed lemur, it has a much smaller population that is spread out, living in lower population densities and reproductively isolated. It also has less coverage and protection in large national parks than the red ruffed lemur. Three subspecies of black-and-white ruffed lemur have been recognized since the red ruffed lemur was elevated to species status in 2001.
View Wikipedia Record: Varecia variegata


Varecia variegata editorum (Southern Black-and-White Ruffed Lemur)
Varecia variegata subcincta (Northern Black-and-White Ruffed Lemur)
Varecia variegata variegata (Variegated Ruffed Lemur)

Endangered Species

Status: Critically Endangered
View IUCN Record: Varecia variegata

EDGE Analysis

The black and white ruffed lemurs are the largest living members of the family Lemurinae. As such they have been excessively hunted, whilst much of their habitat has been deforested. They are also impacted by practices such as selective logging. The range of the black and white ruffed lemur extends in a line down the eastern Malagasay coast from a southern limit around the Mananara River near Vangaindrano to a northern limit somewhat north and west of Maroantsetra, on the Bay of Antongil. However, the remaining population is patchily distributed and has undergone a decline of over 80% in the last 27 years. Whilst some individuals are known to occur in protected areas, further designation and enforcement is required to protect this species.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 15.03
EDGE Score: 5.55
View EDGE Record: Varecia variegata


Adult Weight [2]  8.09 lbs (3.67 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  87 grams
Female Maturity [2]  1 year 7 months
Male Maturity [2]  1 year 8 months
Diet [3]  Frugivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  100 %
Forages - Arboreal [3]  100 %
Arboreal [1]  Yes
Gestation [2]  3 months 9 days
Litter Size [2]  2
Litters / Year [2]  1
Maximum Longevity [2]  36 years
Weaning [2]  3 months 22 days


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Madagascar lowland forests Madagascar Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Madagascar subhumid forests Madagascar Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Mantadia National Park II 38395 Madagascar
Rainforests of the Atsinanana World Heritage Site 1185268 Toamasina, Madagascar  
Ranomafana National Park II 100646 Madagascar  
Réserve Naturelle Intégrale d'Andringitra National Park II 76961 Madagascar
Réserve Naturelle Intégrale de Zahamena National Park II 102875 Madagascar
Reserve de la Biosphere du Mananara Nord Biosphere Reserve 345948 Madagascar  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles Yes

Prey / Diet

Ficus lutea (West African rubbertree)[4]
Ficus reflexa[4]
Ficus tiliifolia[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aldabrachelys gigantea (Aldabra giant tortoise)1
Bycanistes brevis (Silvery-cheeked Hornbill)1
Bycanistes bucinator (Trumpeter Hornbill)1
Cephalophus adersi (Aders's duiker)1
Cercopithecus mitis (blue monkey)1
Coracopsis nigra (Lesser Vasa Parrot)1
Eidolon helvum (straw-colored fruit bat)1
Eulemur fulvus (brown lemur)2
Eulemur rubriventer (red-bellied lemur)1
Hartlaubius auratus (Madagascar Starling)1
Hypsipetes madagascariensis (Malagasy Bulbul)1
Loxodonta africana (African Bush Elephant)1
Piliocolobus badius (western red colobus)1
Propithecus diadema (diademed sifaka)1
Pteropus livingstonii (Comoro black flying fox)1
Pteropus niger (greater mascarene flying fox)1
Pteropus seychellensis (Seychelles flying fox)2
Pteropus voeltzkowi (Pemba flying fox)1
Zosterops maderaspatanus (Madagascar White-eye)1


Cryptoprocta ferox (Fossa)[5]


Parasitized by 
Haemaphysalis lemuris[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
AB Furuviksparken
Africa Alive!variegata
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)
African Safari
Akron Zoological Parkvariegata
Al Bustan Zoological Centervariegata
Amazon Worldvariegata
Apenheul Primate Parkvariegata
Artis Zoovariegata
Assiniboine Park Zoovariegata
Audubon Zoovariegata
Australia Zoovariegata
Banham Zoo Ltd.variegata
Binder Park Zoovariegata
Binghamton Zoo at Ross Parkvariegata
Birmingham Nature Centrevariegata
Blackbrook Zoological Parkvariegata
Bowmanville Zoological Park
Bramble Park Zoo
BREC's Baton Rouge Zoovariegata
Brevard Zoovariegata
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Societyvariegata
Buffalo Zoological Gardensvariegata
Camperdown Wildlife Centrevariegata
Cape May County Park Zoovariegata
Capron Park Zoovariegata
Central Park Zoovariegata
CERZA Centre d'Etude Rech Zool Augeronsubcincta
Chahinkapa Zoovariegata
Chehaw Wild Animal Parkvariegata
Cheyenne Mtn Zoological Parkvariegata
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
City of Belfast Zoosubcincta
Colchester Zoovariegata
Cologne Zoosubcincta
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
Combe Martin Wildlife & Dinosaur Parkvariegata
Cougar Mountain Zoological Parkvariegata
Curraghs Wildlife Parkvariegata
Dallas Zoovariegata
David Traylor Zoo of Emporiavariegata
Detroit Zoological Societyvariegata
Dickerson Park Zoovariegata
Dierenpark 'De Vleut' (Zoo Best)subcincta
Dierenpark Amersfoortvariegata
Dierenpark Wisselsubcincta
Drusillas Zoo Parkvariegata
Dudley Zoological Gardensvariegata
Duke Lemur Center
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trustvariegata
Dusit (Bangkok) Zoological Parkvariegata
Ellen Trout Zoovariegata
Emerald Safari Resortvariegata
Endangered Madagascarvariegata
Erie Zoological Gardensvariegata
Espace Zoologique la Boissiere du Dore
Faunia (Parque Biologico De Madrid,SA)variegata
Flamingo Land LTDvariegata
Folly Farm Leisure Ltdvariegata
Forest Park Zoological Society
Fota Wildlife Parkvariegata
Fundacion Zoologica de Cali
Galloway Wildlife Conservation Parkvariegata
Gladys Porter Zoovariegata
Greenville Zoo
Hai Park Kiriat Motzkinvariegata
Hamilton Zoovariegata
Happy Hollow Zoovariegata
Hattiesburg Zoo
Hong Kong Zool. & Botanical Gardensvariegata
Honolulu Zoovariegata
Houston Zoo, Inc.variegata
Howletts Wild Animal Parkvariegata
Isle of Wight Zoovariegata
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardensvariegata
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoovariegata
Jardin Zoologique de la Ville de Lyonsubcincta
Jesperhus Blomsterparkvariegata
Johannesburg Zoological Gardensvariegata
Knuthenborg Safaripark
La Vallée des Singesvariegata
Lakeland Wildlife Oasisvariegata
Le Pal, Parc Animaliervariegata
Le Parc des Felinsvariegata
Leningrad Zoo - St. Petersburgvariegata
Lincoln Childrens Zoo (former Folsom)variegata
Louisville Zoological Gardenvariegata
Magnetic Hill Zoovariegata
Manor House Wildlife Parkvariegata
Marwell Wildlifevariegata
Melbourne Zoovariegata
Miami Metrozoovariegata
Micke Grove Zoovariegata
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsawvariegata
Mogo Zoo P/Lvariegata
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRLvariegata
Mulhouse Zoosubcincta
Municipal Independent Org. Roev Rucheivariegata
Museum de Besanconsubcincta
Nagyerdei Kultúrpark KHT.
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africavariegata
National Zoo & Aquariumvariegata
Newquay Zoo (Cornwall Animal World)subcincta
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Councilvariegata
Noah's Ark Zoo Farmvariegata
North of England Zoological Societyvariegata
Novosibirsk Zoological Parkvariegata
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Opolu, Opolevariegata
Olmense Zoovariegata
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoovariegata
Orana Wildlife Parkvariegata
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.variegata
Paradise Wildlife Parkvariegata
Parc de la Haute Touche (MNHN)variegata
Parc de Lunaretvariegata
Parc Merveilleux
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Parc Paysager Et Animalier Du Reynou
Parc Zoologique d'Amiensvariegata
Parc Zoologique de Champrépusvariegata
Parc Zoologique de la Barben
Parc Zoologique de La Palmyrevariegata
Parc Zoologique de Lillevariegata
Parc Zoologique de Tregomeurvariegata
Parco Natura Vivavariegata
Parco Zoo di Falconaravariegata
Parco Zoo Punta Verdevariegata
Parque De Animales Silvestres Temaikènvariegata
Patronato del Parque Zoologico de Leonvariegata
Peoria Zoo in Glen Oak Parkvariegata
Perth Zoological Gardensvariegata
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquariumvariegata
Port Lympne Wild Animal Parksubcincta
Ree Park - Ebeltoft Safarivariegata
Reserve Zoologique de Calviac
Riverview Park & Zoovariegata
Roosevelt Park Zoovariegata
Rosamond Gifford Zoo at Burnet Parkvariegata
Sacramento Zoovariegata
Safari West
Saint Louis Zoological Parkvariegata
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquarvariegata
San Diego Zoovariegata
San Francisco Zoological Gardens
Santa Ana Zoovariegata
Sedgwick County Zoovariegata
Seneca Park Zoovariegata
Shaldon Wildlife Trustvariegata
Shepreth Wildlife Parkvariegata
Silesian Zoological Gardenvariegata
Singapore Zoological Gardensvariegata
Skansen Akvarietvariegata
South Lakes Wild Animal Parksubcincta
Stichting Nederlands Opvang Papegaaienvariegata
Taipei Zoo
Texas Zoovariegata
The Pheasant Foundation (OHBG)variegata
The Philadelphia Zoovariegata
Thoiry Zoological Parkvariegata
Tiergarten Heidelbergsubcincta
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbHvariegata
Tierwelt Herbersteinvariegata
Topeka Zoological Parkvariegata
Trevor Zoo at Millbrook Schoolvariegata
Tropiquaria Wildlife Parkvariegata
Trotter's World of Animalsvariegata
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museumvariegata
Twycross Zoovariegata
Tygerberg Zooparkvariegata
Ueno Zoological Gardensvariegata
Usti nad Labem Zoovariegata
Utah's Hogle Zoovariegata
Valley Zoo & John Janzen Nature Center
Wellington Zoo Trustvariegata
West Midland Safari & Leisure Park Ltdvariegata
Western Plains Zoovariegata
Westfalischer Zoologischer Gtn Munstervariegata
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park
Wingham Wildlife Park
Woburn Safari Parkvariegata
Wroclaw Zoo, LLCvariegata
Yorkshire Wildlife Parkvariegata
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagrebvariegata
Zivalski vrt Ljubljanavariegata
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)variegata
Zoo Atlantavariegata
Zoo d'Assonvariegata
Zoo de Doue-la-Fontainevariegata
Zoo de Fuengirola (Rain Forest SL)variegata
Zoo de Jurquesvariegata
Zoo de La Flechevariegata
Zoo de Pont-Scorffvariegata
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternariovariegata
Zoo Duisburg AGvariegata
Zoo Melakavariegata
Zoo Parc de Beauvalvariegata
Zoo Parc Overloonvariegata
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaiavariegata
Zoo Taiping & Night Safarivariegata
Zoobotanico de Jerezvariegata
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Ganvariegata
Zoological Garden Praguesubcincta
Zoological Society of Londonvariegata
Zoologicka zahrada Ostravavariegata
Zoologicka Garden & Chateau Zlin-Lesnavariegata
Zoologicka zahrada Bojnicevariegata
Zoologicka Zahrada Bratislavavariegata
Zoologicka Zahrada Kosicevariegata
Zoologicka Zahrada Mesta Brnavariegata
Zoologicka zahrada Olomoucvariegata
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzensubcincta
Zoologická zahrada Hodonín
Zoologischer Garten Saarbrueckenvariegata
Zoologischer Garten Schmidingvariegata
Zoopark Zajezd o.p.s.
ZooWorld Zoological Botanical Conserv.

Range Map




Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
5Predation on Lemurs in the Rainforest of Madagascar by Multiple Predator Species: Observations and Experiments, Sarah M. Karpanty and Patricia C. Wright, Primate Anti-Predator Strategies, Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects, 2007, Part 2, 77-99
6Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access