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Alouatta caraya (black howler monkey)

Wikipedia Abstract

The black howler (Alouatta caraya) is a species of howler monkey, a large New World monkey, from northeastern Argentina, eastern Bolivia, eastern and southern Brazil, and Paraguay. Together with the brown howler, it is the southernmost member of the Alouatta genus. Only the adult male is black; adult females and juveniles of both genders are overall whitish to yellowish-buff. However, variations occur even among the adult males; some have patches of reddish-brown or buff fur.
View Wikipedia Record: Alouatta caraya

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
2
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
17
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.3
EDGE Score: 1.84

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  12.04 lbs (5.46 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  188 grams
Female Maturity [2]  3 years 2 months
Male Maturity [2]  2 years 6 months
Arboreal [1]  Yes
Diet [1]  Herbivore
Gestation [2]  6 months 7 days
Litter Size [2]  1
Litters / Year [2]  1
Maximum Longevity [2]  32 years
Weaning [2]  6 months 15 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alta Paraná Atlantic forests Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Beni savanna Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Cerrado Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Chiquitano dry forests Bolivia, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Humid Chaco Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Madeira-Tapajós moist forests Brazil, Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pantanal Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Paraná flooded savanna Argentina Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Southern Cone Mesopotamian savanna Argentina Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bosque Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve V 691895 Paraguay  
Estancia Sombrero Private Reserve   Paraguay      
Itabó Biological Reserve IV 34092 Paraguay  
Mburucuyá National Park II   Corrientes, Argentina  
Morombi Private Reserve Natural Private Reserve IV 68152 Paraguay  
Noel Kempff Mercado National Park II 4006523 Bolivia  
Pantanal National Park II 336935 Mato Grosso, Brazil  
Parque Nacional Iguazú National Park II 115949 Argentina  
Parque Nacional Serranía San Luis National Park II 29816 Paraguay  
Río Negro National Park II 73775 Paraguay  
Río Pilcomayo National Park II 123699 Formosa, Argentina
Reserve de Biosphere Cerrado Biosphere Reserve II 1812 Parana, Brazil  
San Rafael, Reserva de Recursos Manejados Managed Resource Reserve VI 165840 Paraguay  
Ybycu'í National Park II 13915 Paraguay  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Atlantic Forest Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay No
Cerrado Brazil No

Prey / Diet

Ficus luschnathiana[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Amazona aestiva (Turquoise-fronted Amazon)1
Artibeus lituratus (great fruit-eating bat)1
Brotogeris chiriri (Yellow-chevroned Parakeet)1
Caluromys lanatus (Brown-eared Woolly Opossum)1
Cebus apella (brown capuchin)1
Dacnis cayana (Blue Dacnis)1
Euphonia chlorotica (Purple-throated Euphonia)1
Forpus xanthopterygius (Blue-winged Parrotlet)1
Megarynchus pitangua (Boat-billed Flycatcher)1
Myiopsitta monachus (Monk Parakeet)1
Pitangus sulphuratus (Great Kiskadee)1
Platyrrhinus lineatus (white-lined broad-nosed bat)1
Ramphocelus carbo (Silver-beaked Tanager)1
Sturnira lilium (little yellow-shouldered bat)1
Tangara cayana (Burnished-buff Tanager)1
Thraupis sayaca (Sayaca Tanager)1
Turdus leucomelas (Pale-breasted Thrush)1
Vireo olivaceus (Red-eyed Vireo)1

Predators

Leopardus pardalis (Ocelot)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Amblyomma paulopunctatum[5]
Bertiella mucronata <Unverified Name>[6]
Longistriata dubia <Unverified Name>[6]
Parabronema bonnei <Unverified Name>[6]
Pediculus mjobergi[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Albuquerque Biological Park
Amazon World
Apenheul Primate Park
Audubon Zoo
Banham Zoo Ltd.
Blackpool Zoo
Bristol Zoo Gardens
Buffalo Zoological Gardens
Cape May County Park Zoo
Central Florida Zoological Park
Cheyenne Mtn Zoological Park
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
Connecticut's Beardsley Zoo
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dierenpark 'De Vleut' (Zoo Best)
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
Edinburgh Zoo-Scottish National Zoo
Exmoor Zoological Park
Fota Wildlife Park
Fundacao Parque Zoologico de Sao Paulo
Hattiesburg Zoo
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoo
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
John Ball Zoological Garden
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardens
Mesker Park Zoo
Miami Metrozoo
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Wybrzeza
Museum de Besancon
Natural Science Center of Greensboro
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Oregon Zoo
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Palm Beach Zoo at Dreher Park
Parc de Lunaret
Parc Zoologic de Barcelona
Phoenix Zoo
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium
Port Lympne Wild Animal Park
Riverbanks Zoo and Garden
San Francisco Zoological Gardens
Santa Ana Zoo
Singapore Zoological Gardens
Smithsonian National Zoological Park
Szeged Zoo
The Tisch Family Zoological Gardens
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museum
Twycross Zoo
Utah's Hogle Zoo
Wilhelma Zoo
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC
Zoologischer Garten Frankfurt

Range Map

South America;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Groves C.P., 2002-07-30, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572 4Leopardus pardalis, Julie L. Murray and Gregory L. Gardner, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 548, pp. 1-10 (1997) 5Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2. 6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by Patterson, B. D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M. F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B. E. Young. 2007. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy—Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International—CABS, World Wildlife Fund—US, and Environment Canada—WILDSPACE.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011