Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Primates > Atelidae > Alouatta > Alouatta pigra

Alouatta pigra (Mexican black howler monkey)

Synonyms: Alouatta palliata luctuosa; Mycetes villosus
Language: Spanish

Wikipedia Abstract

The Guatemalan black howler, or Yucatan black howler, (Alouatta pigra) is a species of howler monkey, a type of New World monkey, from Central America. It is found in Belize, Guatemala and Mexico, in and near the Yucatan Peninsula. It lives in evergreen, semideciduous and lowland rain forests. It is also known as the baboon in Belize, although it is not closely related to the baboons in Africa.
View Wikipedia Record: Alouatta pigra

Endangered Species

Status: Endangered
View IUCN Record: Alouatta pigra

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.3
EDGE Score: 3.92


Adult Weight [2]  15.43 lbs (7.00 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  1.06 lbs (480 g)
Diet [3]  Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  40 %
Diet - Plants [3]  60 %
Forages - Arboreal [3]  100 %
Arboreal [1]  Yes
Gestation [2]  6 months 7 days
Litter Size [2]  1


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Belizean pine forests Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Mesoamerican Gulf-Caribbean mangroves Bahamas, United Kingdom Neotropic Mangroves
Pantanos de Centla Mexico Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Petén-Veracruz moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yucatán moist forests Mexico, Guatemala, Belize Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bladen Branch Nature Reserve Ia 100225 Belize  
Chiquibul Forest Reserve VI 148670 Belize  
Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary IV 122962 Belize
Columbia River Forest Reserve VI 149053 Belize  
Maya UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve 5221188 Petén, Guatemala  
Proyecto Ecologico Quetzal   Guatemala    
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  
Sarstoon Temash National Park II 42082 Belize  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Mesoamerica Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama Yes

Prey / Diet

Albizia saman (Rain Tree)[4]
Andira inermis (cabbagebark tree)[4]
Brosimum alicastrum (breadnut)[4]
Coccoloba belizensis[4]
Coccoloba hondurensis[4]
Combretum fruticosum[4]
Ficus americana (Jamaican cherry fig)[5]
Ficus aurea (Florida strangler fig)[5]
Ficus costaricana[5]
Ficus crassinervia (jaguey blanco)[5]
Ficus insipida[5]
Ficus maxima[5]
Ficus nymphaeifolia (amate)[5]
Ficus pertusa[5]
Ficus popenoei[5]
Ficus yoponensis[5]
Guazuma invira (bastardcedar)[4]
Inga vera (river koko)[4]
Miconia argentea[4]
Paullinia clavigera[4]
Pithecellobium lanceolatum[4]
Sapindus saponaria (western soapberry)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alouatta palliata (mantled howler monkey)6
Amazona albifrons (White-fronted Parrot)4
Amazona finschi (Lilac-crowned Parrot)3
Aratinga canicularis (Orange-fronted Parakeet)2
Artibeus jamaicensis (Jamaican fruit-eating bat)10
Artibeus lituratus (great fruit-eating bat)6
Ateles geoffroyi (Central American spider monkey)5
Aulacorhynchus prasinus (Emerald Toucanet)2
Bassaricyon gabbii (Olingo)3
Brotogeris jugularis (Orange-chinned Parakeet)6
Carollia subrufa (gray short-tailed bat)2
Cebus capucinus (white-faced capuchin)5
Chiroderma villosum (hairy big-eyed bat)5
Chiroxiphia linearis (Long-tailed Manakin)2
Chlorophanes spiza (Green Honeycreeper)2
Chlorophonia callophrys (Golden-browed Chlorophonia)2
Dermanura phaeotis (pygmy fruit-eating bat)3
Dermanura tolteca (Toltec fruit-eating bat)3
Euphonia hirundinacea (Yellow-throated Euphonia)2
Euphonia luteicapilla (Yellow-crowned Euphonia)2
Icterus galbula (Northern Oriole)2
Momotus momota (Blue-crowned Motmot)2
Nasua nasua (South American Coati)4
Pecari tajacu (collared peccary)2
Pharomachrus mocinno (Resplendent Quetzal)3
Pheucticus ludovicianus (Rose-breasted Grosbeak)2
Platyrrhinus helleri (Heller's broad-nosed bat)4
Potos flavus (Kinkajou)5
Procnias tricarunculatus (Three-wattled Bellbird)2
Psilorhinus morio (Brown Jay)2
Ramphastos sulfuratus (Keel-billed Toucan)2
Saguinus oedipus (cotton-top tamarin)6
Sciurus variegatoides (variegated squirrel)2
Setophaga castanea (Bay-breasted Warbler)2
Tapirella bairdii (Baird's tapir)2
Tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary)2
Tityra semifasciata (Masked Tityra)2
Turdus assimilis (White-throated Thrush)2
Turdus plebejus (Mountain Thrush)2
Uroderma bilobatum (tent-making bat)7
Vampyressa pusilla (little yellow-eared bat)3
Vampyriscus nymphaea (striped yellow-eared bat)5
Vampyrodes caraccioli (great stripe-faced bat)4


Parasitized by 
Cryptosporidium parvum[6]
Entamoeba coli[6]
Entamoeba histolytica[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Gladys Porter Zoo
Zoologico Nacional La Aurora

Range Map

Middle America;


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Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4Feeding Ecology of the Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta pigra) in Northern Belize, S.C. SILVER, L.E.T. OSTRO, C.P. YEAGER, AND R. HORWICH, American Journal of Primatology 45:263–279 (1998)
5"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
6Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Audio software provided by SoundManager 2