Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Primates > Cercopithecoidea > Cercopithecidae > Papio > Papio hamadryas

Papio hamadryas (hamadryas baboon)

Synonyms: Cynocephalus wagleri; Hamadryas aegyptiaca; Hamadryas chaeropitheus; Papio arabicus; Papio brockmani; Simia cynamolgus; Theropithecus nedjo

Wikipedia Abstract

The hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) is a species of baboon from the Old World monkey family. It is the northernmost of all the baboons, being native to the Horn of Africa and the southwestern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. These regions provide habitats with the advantage for this species of fewer natural predators than central or southern Africa where other baboons reside.
View Wikipedia Record: Papio hamadryas

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 6.04
EDGE Score: 1.95


Adult Weight [1]  39.68 lbs (18.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  1.79 lbs (814 g)
Female Maturity [1]  4 years 1 month
Male Maturity [1]  4 years 10 months
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Herbivore
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  10 %
Diet - Plants [2]  80 %
Diet - Vertibrates [2]  10 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  5 months 21 days
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  38 years
Weaning [1]  10 months


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert Oman, Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Ethiopian montane forests Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Ethiopia, Eritrea Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian montane moorlands Ethiopia Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert Egypt, Jordan, Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali montane xeric woodlands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southwestern Arabian foothills savanna Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Oman Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands Yemen, Saudi Arabia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Amboseli National Park National Reserve II 99624 Kenya
Garamba National Park II 1237963 Democratic Republic of the Congo  
Golden Gate Highlands National Park II 28689 Free State, South Africa
Itala Game Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve II 72822 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve II 256073 Western Cape, South Africa  
Kora National Park II 409762 Kenya
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve   Mpumalanga, South Africa  
Lake Manyara National Park II 78767 Tanzania  
Lake Nakuru National Park II 46472 Kenya  
Mahale Mountains National Park II 398414 Tanzania
Mamili National Park II 83904 Namibia  
Minziro Forest Reserve 76954 Tanzania  
Mount Kenya Biosphere Reserve II 146694 Kenya
Namib-Naukluft National Park II 12585619 Namibia  
Naute Dam Recreational Resort V 58352 Namibia  
Parc National de la Comoe National Park II 2902593 Côte d'Ivoire  
Parc National du Niokolo-Koba National Park II 2046878 Senegal  
Queen Elizabeth National Park II 522052 Uganda
Radom National Park II   Sudan  
Richtersveld National Park II 399195 Northern Cape, South Africa
Skeleton Coast Game Park II 4168395 Namibia  
South Luangwa National Park II 2220358 Zambia  
Tsavo East National Park II 3232255 Kenya
Tsitsikamma National Park II 34343 Southern Cape, South Africa  


Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No

Prey / Diet

Barleria delamerei[3]
Cenchrus ciliaris (Buffel Grass)[4]
Cynanchum insipidum[3]
Cyperus grandibulbosus[3]
Hyphaene thebaica (doum palm)[3]
Psilotrichum gnaphalobryum[3]
Seddera bagshawei[3]
Senegalia mellifera (Blackthorn)[3]
Senegalia senegal (gum arabic)[3]
Themeda triandra (red grass)[4]
Tribulus cistoides (puncture vine)[3]
Typha latifolia (Reedmace)[3]
Vachellia tortilis (umbrella thorn)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aepyceros melampus (impala)2
Antidorcas marsupialis (springbok)2
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary)1
Cephalophus natalensis (Natal duiker)1
Connochaetes taurinus (blue wildebeest)2
Equus grevyi (Grevy's zebra)1
Equus quagga (quagga)2
Equus quagga burchellii (Burchell's zebra)1
Equus zebra (mountain zebra)1
Gazella dorcas (Dorcas gazelle)1
Heterohyrax brucei (Yellow-spotted Rock Hyrax)1
Neotragus moschatus (suni)1
Ourebia ourebi (oribi)1
Stigmochelys pardalis (Leopard Tortoise)1
Sylvicapra grimmia (bush duiker)1
Syncerus caffer (African buffalo)2
Tragelaphus strepsiceros (greater kudu)1


Lycaon pictus (African wild dog)[4]
Panthera leo (Lion)[4]
Panthera pardus (Leopard)[4]


Parasitized by 
Echinococcus granulosus[5]
Echinococcus multilocularis[5]
Entamoeba histolytica[6]
Enterobius vermicularis[5]
Escherichia coli (E. coli)[6]
Hymenolepis nana <Unverified Name>[5]
Pedicinus hamadryas[7]
Schistosoma mansoni[5]
Trichostrongylus colubriformis[6]
Trichostrongylus subtilis <Unverified Name>[5]
Watsonius deschiensi <Unverified Name>[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aalborg Zoo
Adelaide Zoo
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)
Al Ain Zoo
Alabama Gulf Coast Zoo
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
Auckland Zoological Park
Badoca Safari Park
Barranquilla Zoo
Blaavand Zoo
Bosphorus Zoo (Bogaziçi Hayvanat
Bowmanville Zoological Park
Bursa Zoo (Bursa Hayvanat Bahcesi)
CERZA Centre d'Etude Rech Zool Augeron
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
Cologne Zoo
Copenhagen Zoo
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dept. of National Zoological Gardenshamadryas
Dierenpark Amersfoort
Dierenpark Emmen
Espace Zoolog de St-Martin-la-Plaine
Flamingo Land LTD
Fundacion Zoologica de Cali
Giza Zoological Garden
Guadalajara Zoo
Haifa Zoo & Biological Institute
Helsinki Zoo
Honolulu Zoo
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoohamadryas
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
Johannesburg Zoological Gardenshamadryas
Jyllands Park Zoo
Kharkiv Zoo
Knoxville Zoological Gardens
Knuthenborg Safaripark
Kyiv Zoological Park
Le Pal, Parc Animalier
Lietuvos Zoologijos Sodas
Lucknow Zoological Park
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunn
Melbourne Zoo
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquarium
Micke Grove Zoo
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africa
Neunkircher Zoologischer Garten GmbH
Nogeyama Zoological Gardens Yokohama
North Carolina Zoological Park
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
Oakland Zoo
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Parc Zoologique de la Barben
Park i Ogrod Zoologiczny w Krakowie
Parque Zoologico Jaime Duque - Bogota
Patronato del Parque Zoologico de Leonhamadryas
Perth Zoological Gardens
Phoenix Zoo
Prospect Park Zoo
Riverbanks Zoo and Garden
Safaripark Beekse Bergen
San Diego Wild Animal Park
San Diego Zoo
Sedgwick County Zoo
Sharjah Breeding Centre For Endangered
Silesian Zoological Garden
Singapore Zoological Gardens
South Lakes Wild Animal Park
Tbilisi Zoo
Texas Zoo
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnberg
Tierpark Hagenbeck GmbH
Utah's Hogle Zoo
Washington Park Zoological Gardens
Wellington Zoo Trust
Xantus János Állatkert Kht.
Zoo and Aqua-Terrarium Ltd. Pécs
Zoo Krefeld GmbH
Zoo of Antwerp
Zoo Osnabrück
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Gan
Zoologicka Zahrada Bratislava
Zoologicka zahrada Liberec
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbH
Zoologischer Garten Frankfurt
Zoologischer Garten Leipzig

Range Map

Africa; Tsavo National Park;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Composition and Seasonality of Diet in Wild Hamadryas Baboons: Preliminary Findings from Filoha, Larissa Swedell, Getenet Hailemeskel, Amy Schreier, Folia Primatol 2008;79:476–490
4Who's Eating Who
5Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
6Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access