Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Primates > Cercopithecoidea > Cercopithecidae > Semnopithecus > Semnopithecus entellus

Semnopithecus entellus (Hanuman langur)

Wikipedia Abstract

The northern plains gray langur (Semnopithecus entellus) is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in India on the lowlands north of the Godavari and Krishna rivers and south of the Ganges. It is thought to be introduced to western Bangladesh by Hindu pilgrims on the bank of the Jalangi River. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and subtropical or tropical dry shrubland. It is threatened by habitat loss.
View Wikipedia Record: Semnopithecus entellus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 3.43
EDGE Score: 1.49


Adult Weight [1]  29.80 lbs (13.52 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  1.10 lbs (500 g)
Female Maturity [1]  3 years 2 months
Male Maturity [1]  5 years 2 months
Diet [2]  Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  10 %
Diet - Plants [2]  90 %
Forages - Scansorial [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  6 months 12 days
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  29 years
Weaning [1]  11 months 12 days


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Goadavari-Krishna mangroves India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Orissa semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Rann of Kutch seasonal salt marsh India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Thar desert India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bandhavgarh National Park II 89210 Madhya Pradesh, India  
Corbett National Park II 141853 Uttaranchal, India
Eravikulam National Park II 39436 Kerala, India
Indravati Tiger Reserve   Chhattishgarh, India      
Kanha Tiger Reserve National Park II 223971 Madhya Pradesh, India
Kudremukh National Park II 202772 Karnataka, India  
Medog Nature Reserve   China      
Mount Everest (Sagarmatha) National Park II 275416 Nepal
Namdapha National Park II   Arunachal Pradesh, India
Nanda Devi National Park II 161583 Uttaranchal, India  
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve 1364022 India  
Rajaji National Park II 196637 Uttaranchal, India  
Rajiv Gandhi (Nagarahole) National Park II 155253 Karnataka, India  
Ranthambore National Park II 137162 Rajasthan, India
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Simlipal Tiger Reserve National Park II 103465 Orissa, India  
Wilpattu National Park II 320298 Sri Lanka  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Bauhinia divaricata (Pata De Vaca)[3]
Bauhinia vahlii (Camel's Foot Climber)[3]
Desmodium oojeinense[3]
Ehretia latifolia[3]
Ficus amplissima[4]
Ficus arnottiana[3]
Ficus benghalensis (Indian banyan)[4]
Ficus callosa[4]
Ficus minahassae (clustertree)[4]
Ficus religiosa (peepul tree)[4]
Ficus tinctoria (fig)[4]
Flemingia macrophylla[3]
Lannea coromandelica[3]
Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia (moa tree)[3]
Mallotus philippensis (kamala tree)[3]
Miliusa tomentosa[3]
Phyllanthus emblica (emblic)[3]
Pterocarpus marsupium (Malabar Kino Tree)[3]
Shorea robusta (sal tree)[3]
Stereospermum chelonoides[3]
Terminalia anogeissiana (gum ghatti)[3]
Terminalia belerica[3]
Terminalia chebula (myrobalan)[3]
Terminalia coriacea[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aceros cassidix (Knobbed Hornbill)1
Acridotheres fuscus (Jungle Myna)1
Acridotheres ginginianus (Bank Myna)2
Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)3
Acritillas indica (Yellow-browed Bulbul)1
Anthracoceros coronatus (Malabar Pied Hornbill)2
Axis axis (chital)4
Axis porcinus (hog deer)1
Bos frontalis gaurus (gaur)1
Boselaphus tragocamelus (nilgai)3
Buceros bicornis (Great Hornbill)2
Chloropsis aurifrons (Golden-fronted Leafbird)1
Coracina novaehollandiae (Black-faced Cuckooshrike)2
Corvus macrorhynchos (Large-billed Crow)3
Corvus splendens (House Crow)1
Cuculus varius (common hawk-cuckoo)1
Cynopterus brachyotis (lesser short-nosed fruit bat)1
Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)3
Dendrocitta formosae (Grey Treepie)1
Dendrocitta vagabunda (Rufous Treepie)3
Dicaeum agile (Thick-billed Flowerpecker)1
Dicaeum erythrorhynchos (Pale-billed Flowerpecker)1
Dinopium benghalense (Lesser Goldenback)1
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)2
Galloperdix spadicea (Red Spurfowl)1
Gracula religiosa (Hill Myna)1
Gracupica contra (Pied Myna)1
Hoolock hoolock hoolock (hoolock gibbon)4
Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)2
Hylobates moloch (silvery gibbon)2
Hypsipetes leucocephalus (Black Bulbul)2
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)2
Loriculus vernalis (Vernal Hanging Parrot)1
Macaca cyclopis (Taiwan macaque)1
Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque)1
Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey)3
Macaca nemestrina (pigtail macaque)1
Macaca nigra (Celebes crested macaque)1
Macaca radiata (bonnet macaque)1
Macaca silenus (liontail macaque)1
Macroglossus minimus (lesser long-tongued fruit bat)2
Megalaima asiatica (Blue-throated Barbet)1
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)3
Megalaima viridis (White-cheeked Barbet)3
Megalaima zeylanica (Brown-headed Barbet)3
Melursus ursinus (Sloth Bear)4
Monticola solitarius (Blue Rock Thrush)2
Muntiacus muntjak (Indian muntjac)2
Ocyceros birostris (Indian Grey Hornbill)2
Ocyceros gingalensis (Sri Lankan Grey Hornbill)1
Ocyceros griseus (Malabar Grey Hornbill)2
Oriolus oriolus (Eurasian Golden Oriole)3
Oriolus xanthornus (Black-hooded Oriole)1
Paradoxurus hermaphroditus (Asian Palm Civet)1
Pastor roseus (Rosy Starling)2
Pavo cristatus (Indian Peafowl)1
Phalanger orientalis (Northern Common Cuscus)1
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)1
Psittacula columboides (Blue-winged Parakeet)1
Psittacula cyanocephala (Plum-headed Parakeet)1
Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine Parakeet)1
Psittacula krameri (Rose-ringed Parakeet)1
Pteropus alecto (black flying fox)1
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)5
Pycnonotus cafer (Red-vented Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus luteolus (White-browed Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus melanicterus (Black-crested Bulbul)1
Pycnonotus xantholaemus (Yellow-throated Bulbul)1
Pygathrix nemaeus (Douc langur)2
Ratufa indica (Indian giant squirrel)2
Rhinoceros unicornis (Indian rhinoceros)4
Rhyticeros narcondami (Narcondam Hornbill)1
Rhyticeros subruficollis (Plain-pouched Hornbill)1
Rousettus aegyptiacus (Egyptian rousette)1
Rousettus amplexicaudatus (Geoffroy's rousette)1
Rousettus leschenaultii (Leschenault's rousette)4
Rusa unicolor (sambar)1
Semnopithecus vetulus (purple-faced leaf monkey)1
Sturnia malabarica (Chestnut-tailed Starling)1
Sturnia pagodarum (Brahminy Starling)1
Sus scrofa (wild boar)2
Tatera indica (Indian gerbil)1
Tephrodornis pondicerianus (Common Woodshrike)1
Trachypithecus pileatus (capped leaf monkey)4
Treron phoenicopterus (Yellow-footed Green Pigeon)2
Treron pompadora (Pompadour Green Pigeon)1
Turdoides striata (Bengal jungle babbler)2
Viverricula indica (Small Indian Civet)1
Vulpes bengalensis (Bengal Fox)1
Zosterops palpebrosus (Oriental White-eye)1


Parasitized by 
Pedicinus ancoratus[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Bannerghatta Biological Parkentellus
Chattanooga Zoo at Warner Park
Dept. of National Zoological Gardens
Dr. Shivarama Karanth Pilikula Biol.Pk
Jawaharlal Nehru Biological Park
Kamala Nehru Prani Sanghrahalay Zoo
Museum de Besancon
National Trust for Nature Conservation
Neunkircher Zoologischer Garten GmbH
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zool. Park
Parc Zoologique de Tregomeur
San Diego Wild Animal Park
San Diego Zoo
Szeged Zoo
Tata Steel Zoological Park
Tiergarten Heidelberg
Utah's Hogle Zooentellus
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb
Zoo Hannover GmbH
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoologicka zahrada Ostrava

Range Map

Southern Asia;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Feeding and Ranging Patterns of Forest Hanuman Langurs (Presbytis entellus), Paul Newton, International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1992
4"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access