Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Primates > Hominoidea > Hylobatidae > Hylobates > Hylobates lar
 

Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)

Wikipedia Abstract

The lar gibbon (Hylobates lar), also known as the white-handed gibbon, is a primate in the gibbon family, Hylobatidae. It is one of the better-known gibbons and is often seen in zoos.
View Wikipedia Record: Hylobates lar

Infraspecies

Hylobates lar carpenteri (Carpenter's Lar gibbon)
Hylobates lar entelloides (Central Lar Gibbon)
Hylobates lar lar (Malayan Lar Gibbon)
Hylobates lar vestitus (Sumatran Lar Gibbon)
Hylobates lar yunnanensis (Yunnan Lar Gibbon)

Endangered Species

Status: Endangered
View IUCN Record: Hylobates lar

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
2
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
48
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.1
EDGE Score: 3.89

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  15.01 lbs (6.81 kg)
Birth Weight [2]  307 grams
Female Maturity [2]  7 years
Male Maturity [2]  5 years
Diet [3]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [3]  70 %
Diet - Invertibrates [3]  10 %
Diet - Plants [3]  20 %
Forages - Arboreal [3]  100 %
Arboreal [1]  Yes
Gestation [2]  7 months 7 days
Litter Size [2]  1
Litters / Year [2]  1
Maximum Longevity [2]  56 years
Weaning [2]  1 year 7 months

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya freshwater swamp forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Indochina mangroves Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Luang Prabang montane rain forests Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Myanmar Coast mangroves India, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Mangroves  
Myanmar coastal rain forests Myanmar, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Thailand-Laos moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran lowland rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran tropical pine forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sunda Shelf mangroves Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bukit Kutu Wildlife Reserve IV 4602 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Bung Kroeng Kavia Non-hunting Area   Thailand      
Erawan National Park II 131204 Thailand
Gunung Leuser National Park II 2203368 Sumatra, Indonesia
Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 699629 Thailand  
Kaeng Krachan National Park II 753452 Thailand
Khao Banthat Wildlife Sanctuary IV 309428 Thailand  
Khao Lam Pi - Hat Thai Muang National Marine Park II 17646 Thailand
Khao Luang National Park II 143331 Thailand
Khao Phanom Bencha National Park II 12840 Thailand
Khao Pra Bang Kram Wildlife Sanctuary IV 30009 Thailand  
Khao Sok National Park II 159284 Thailand
Khao Yai National Park II 542694 Thailand
Khaoen Si Nakarin National Park II 459154 Thailand
Khlong Lan National Park II 104466 Thailand
Khlong Nakha Wildlife Sanctuary IV 117887 Thailand  
Khlong Phraya Wildlife Sanctuary IV 36624 Thailand  
Khlong Saeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 243425 Thailand  
Krau Wildlife Reserve IV 149823 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Mae Sa-Kog Ma Reserve   Thailand      
Mae Tuen Wildlife Sanctuary IV 307947 Thailand  
Mae Wong National Park II 221459 Thailand
Nam Phoun National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 439874 Laos  
Om Koi Wildlife Sanctuary IV 299357 Thailand  
Pasoh Virgin Jungle Reserve Ia   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary IV 391278 Thailand  
Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 227671 Thailand  
Prince Chumphon Park (North) Wildlife Sanctuary IV 152683 Thailand  
Sai Yok National Park II 235556 Thailand
Salawin National Park II 400497 Thailand
Si Phang Nga National Park II 60672 Thailand
Sungai Lalang Forest Reserve Virgin Jungle Reserve Ia   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Taman Negara National Park II 1122273 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Thaleban National Park Marine National Park II 49715 Thailand
Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary IV 918234 Thailand  
Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 45094 Thailand  
Umphang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 619152 Thailand  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No

Prey / Diet

Aphananthe cuspidata[4]
Baccaurea ramiflora (baccaurea)[4]
Balakata baccata[4]
Bischofia javanica (Javanese bishopwood)[5]
Callophyllum saigonense[5]
Carallia brachiata[4]
Chionanthus ramiflora[4]
Choerospondias axillaris (Nepali hog plum)[4]
Cinnamomum subavenium[6]
Cissus nodosa (Javanese treebine)[5]
Cudrania cochinchinensis[4]
Desmos chinensis[6]
Desmos cochinchinensis[4]
Diospyros glandulosa[4]
Dipterocarpus baudii (Dipterocarpus scortechinii)[4]
Dissochaeta divaricata[4]
Duabanga grandiflora[6]
Elaeagnus loureiroi[4]
Elaeocarpus glaber[5]
Erythrina subumbrans (erythrina)[4]
Ficus altissima (false banyan)[7]
Ficus annulata[7]
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)[7]
Ficus binnendykii[7]
Ficus bracteata[7]
Ficus crassiramea[7]
Ficus crassiramea subsp. stupenda[7]
Ficus cucurbitina[7]
Ficus drupacea (brown-woolly fig)[7]
Ficus dubia[7]
Ficus geniculata[7]
Ficus glaberrima[7]
Ficus globosa[7]
Ficus inaequifolia[7]
Ficus kerkhoveni[7]
Ficus kurzii[7]
Ficus minahassae (clustertree)[7]
Ficus obscura[7]
Ficus pisocarpa[7]
Ficus ruginervia[7]
Ficus stricta[7]
Ficus subcordata[7]
Ficus sumatrana[7]
Ficus superba (Sea Fig)[7]
Ficus tinctoria (fig)[7]
Ficus virens[7]
Garcinia calophylla[5]
Garcinia speciosa[4]
Gironniera nervosa[4]
Gnetum montanum[4]
Ilex goshiensis[4]
Knema elegans[4]
Mallotus sphaerocarpus[5]
Mangifera altissima (pahutan)[4]
Mastixia trichotoma[5]
Medusanthera gracilis[4]
Mucuna macrocarpa[4]
Nauclea subdita[4]
Neonauclea purpurea[4]
Nephelium melliferum[4]
Platea latifolia[4]
Podocarpus neriifolius (Brown pine)[4]
Poikilospermum suaveolens[4]
Polyalthia debilis[4]
Polyalthia viridis[4]
Prunus javanica[6]
Pueraria montana var. lobata (Kudzu)[4]
Rubus glomeratus[5]
Salacia wrightii[4]
Sandoricum koetjape (santol)[4]
Senegalia megaladena[6]
Staphylea sphaerocarpa[5]
Symplocos cochinchinensis[4]
Tetrastigma hookeri[5]
Toddalia asiatica (orange climber)[4]
Trema orientalis (oriental trema)[5]
Walsura robusta[6]
Walsura trichostemon[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aceros cassidix (Knobbed Hornbill)4
Aceros corrugatus (Wrinkled Hornbill)10
Aceros waldeni (Walden's Hornbill)5
Alophoixus bres (Grey-cheeked Bulbul)7
Alophoixus pallidus (Puff-throated Bulbul)7
Alophoixus phaeocephalus (Yellow-bellied Bulbul)8
Anorrhinus galeritus (Bushy-crested Hornbill)10
Anorrhinus tickelli (Brown Hornbill)7
Anthracoceros albirostris (Oriental Pied Hornbill)10
Anthracoceros malayanus (Black Hornbill)15
Arctictis binturong (Binturong)9
Buceros bicornis (Great Hornbill)10
Buceros rhinoceros (Rhinoceros Hornbill)13
Callosciurus adamsi (ear-spot squirrel)7
Callosciurus finlaysonii (Finlayson's squirrel)5
Callosciurus nigrovittatus (black-striped squirrel)8
Callosciurus notatus (plantain squirrel)10
Callosciurus prevostii (Prevost's squirrel)14
Caloramphus fuliginosus (Brown Barbet)16
Calyptomena viridis (Green Broadbill)16
Chloropsis cochinchinensis (Blue-winged Leafbird)15
Chloropsis cyanopogon (Lesser Green Leafbird)10
Chloropsis sonnerati (Greater Green Leafbird)15
Corvus enca (Slender-billed Crow)4
Dicaeum agile (Thick-billed Flowerpecker)4
Dicaeum chrysorrheum (Yellow-vented Flowerpecker)10
Dicaeum concolor (Plain Flowerpecker)4
Dicaeum trigonostigma (Orange-bellied Flowerpecker)6
Ducula badia (Mountain Imperial Pigeon)9
Ducula bicolor (Pied Imperial Pigeon)4
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)5
Garrulax leucolophus (White-crested Laughingthrush)4
Gracula religiosa (Hill Myna)18
Hylobates moloch (silvery gibbon)9
Iole olivacea (Buff-vented Bulbul)10
Iole propinqua (Grey-eyed Bulbul)8
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)21
Ixos malaccensis (Streaked Bulbul)7
Loriculus galgulus (Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot)7
Loriculus vernalis (Vernal Hanging Parrot)6
Macaca cyclopis (Taiwan macaque)5
Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque)20
Macaca nemestrina (pigtail macaque)10
Megalaima australis (Blue-eared Barbet)19
Megalaima chrysopogon (Golden-whiskered Barbet)15
Megalaima faiostricta (Green-eared Barbet)7
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)4
Megalaima henricii (Yellow-crowned Barbet)11
Megalaima lineata (Lineated Barbet)5
Megalaima mystacophanos (Red-throated Barbet)16
Megalaima rafflesii (Red-crowned Barbet)10
Oriolus xanthonotus (Dark-throated Oriole)4
Platysmurus leucopterus (Black Magpie)4
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)20
Presbytis comata (grizzled leaf monkey)6
Prionochilus maculatus (Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker)7
Prionochilus percussus (Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker)9
Prionochilus thoracicus (Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker)5
Prionochilus xanthopygius (Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker)5
Pteropus vampyrus (large flying fox)4
Pycnonotus atriceps (Black-headed Bulbul)9
Pycnonotus brunneus (Asian Red-eyed Bulbul)13
Pycnonotus cyaniventris (Grey-bellied Bulbul)7
Pycnonotus erythropthalmos (Spectacled Bulbul)6
Pycnonotus eutilotus (Puff-backed Bulbul)11
Pycnonotus goiavier (Yellow-vented Bulbul)4
Pycnonotus melanicterus (Black-crested Bulbul)10
Pycnonotus plumosus (Olive-winged Bulbul)6
Pycnonotus simplex (Cream-vented Bulbul)5
Ratufa affinis (pale giant squirrel)7
Ratufa bicolor (black giant squirrel)16
Rhinoplax vigil (Helmeted Hornbill)9
Rhyticeros undulatus (Wreathed Hornbill)11
Symphalangus syndactylus (siamang)9
Trachypithecus obscurus (dusky leaf monkey)6
Treron capellei (Large Green Pigeon)13
Treron curvirostra (Thick-billed Green Pigeon)20
Treron olax (Little Green Pigeon)4
Tricholestes criniger (Hairy-backed Bulbul)6
Tupaia glis (Common Treeshrew)6
Tupaia minor (Pygmy Treeshrew)7

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Dirofilaria digitata <Unverified Name>[8]
Dirofilaria immitis (Heartworm)[8]
Taenia solium <Unverified Name>[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
AB Furuviksparken
Al Ain Zoo
Alexandria Zoological Park
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
Assiniboine Park Zoo
Binder Park Zoo
Birmingham Zoo
 lar
Blaavand Zoo
Blank Park Zoo of Des Moines
Boras Djurpark Zoo
Bosphorus Zoo (Bogaziçi Hayvanat
Bowmanville Zoological Park
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Park
Cameron Park Zoo
CERZA Centre d'Etude Rech Zool Augeron
Chahinkapa Zoo
Cheyenne Mtn Zoological Park
Chiangmai Zoological Garden
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Cologne Zoo
Columbian Park Zoo
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
Combe Martin Wildlife & Dinosaur Park
 lar
Copenhagen Zoo
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardens
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dept. of National Zoological Gardens
Dierenpark Emmen
Drayton Manor Park Zoo
Drusillas Zoo Park
 lar
Dudley Zoological Gardens
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
Dusit (Bangkok) Zoological Park
Espace Zoolog de St-Martin-la-Plaine
Espace Zoologique la Boissiere du Dore
Exmoor Zoological Park
Fota Wildlife Park
Fundacao Parque Zoologico de Sao Paulo
Giza Zoological Garden
Gladys Porter Zoo
Henry Vilas Zoo
Henson Robinson Zoo
Honolulu Zoo
IAE - African Safari Wildlife Park
Indianapolis Zoo
Jackson Zoological Park
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoo
Jászberény Zool.& Botanical Garden
Johannesburg Zoological Gardens
Khao Kheow Open Zooentelloides
Knoxville Zoological Gardens
 albimana
Kolmardens Djurpark AB
Kristiansand Dyrepark ASA
Le Pal, Parc Animalier
Leningrad Zoo - St. Petersburg
Lion Country Safari Inc - Florida
Little Rock Zoological Gardens
Louisiana Purchase Gardens & Zoo
Magnetic Hill Zoo
Miami Metrozoo
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodz
Mogo Zoo P/L
Mokopane Biodiversity Conservation Centre
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRL
Municipal Independent Org. Roev Ruchei
Nagyerdei Kultúrpark KHT.
Nakhon Ratchasima Zool. Park
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africa
Natural Science Center of Greensboro
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Council
North of England Zoological Society
Novosibirsk Zoological Park
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
Oakland Zoo
 carpenteri
Odsherreds Zoo Dyrepark A/S
Ogrod Zoologiczny im. Stefana Milera
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Opolu, Opole
Olmense Zoo
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
 albimana
Ouwehand Zoo
Paignton Zoo Environmental Parklar
Paradise Wildlife Park
Parc Zoologique d'Amiens
Parc Zoologique d'Amneville
Parc Zoologique de La Palmyre
Parc Zoologique de Lille
Parco Faunistico La Torbiera
Parco Zoo di Falconara
Parco Zoo Punta Verde
Park i Ogrod Zoologiczny w Krakowie
Parken Zoo i Eskilstuna AB
Pueblo Zoo
Racine Zoological Gardens
Ree Park - Ebeltoft Safari
Reid Park Zoo
 carpenteri
Reserve Africaine de Sigean
Roosevelt Park Zoo
Rotterdam Zoo
Sacramento Zoo
Safari de Peaugres
Safaripark Beekse Bergen
Salzburg Zoo Hellbrunn
Santa Ana Zoo
 entelloides
Santa Barbara Zoological Gardenscarpenteri
 entelloides
Santa Fe CollegeTeaching Zoo
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH
Seneca Park Zoo
Seoul Zoo
Sequoia Park Zoo
Silver Springs Park
Singapore Zoological Gardens
Skaerup Mini Zoo
Societa Zoologica Di Pistoia S.R.L
Songkhla Zoo
South Lakes Wild Animal Park
Taipei Zoo
Tama Zoological Park
Tautphaus Park Zoo
Terra Natura S.A.
The Naples Zoo
The Philadelphia Zoo
Thoiry Zoological Park
Thrigby Hall Wildlife Gardens
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnberg
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbH
Toronto Zoo
Tropiquaria Wildlife Park
Trotter's World of Animals
Twycross Zoo
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Utah's Hogle Zoo
Utica Zoo
Valley Zoo & John Janzen Nature Center
Welsh Mountain Zoo
Western Plains Zoo
Wildlife Safari Inc
Wildlife World Zoo
Wilhelma Zoo
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC
Yerkes National Primate Research Ctr
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo Boise
Zoo d'Asson
Zoo de Doue-la-Fontaine
Zoo de Jurques
Zoo de la Bourbansais
Zoo des Sables d'Olonne
Zoo Landau in der Pfalz
Zoo Melakalar
Zoo Negara Malaysialar
Zoo of Acadiana
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoo Taiping & Night Safarilar
Zool.Nacional Parque Metro De Santiago
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Gan
Zoological Garden Prague
Zoologicka Garden & Chateau Zlin-Lesna
Zoologicka zahrada Olomouc
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzen
Zoologická zahrada Hodonín
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg
Zoologischer Garten Saarbruecken
Zoologischer Garten Schmiding
Zoologischer Garten Wuppertal

Range Map

Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
3Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
4SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF FOOD PLANTS BY WHITE-HANDED GIBBONS (HYLOBATES LAR) IN KHAO YAI NATIONAL PARK, THAILAND, Claudia Whitington and Uthai Treesucon, NAT. HIST. BULL. SIAM SOC. 39: lll-122, 1991
5Fruit Preferences of Four Sympatric Primate Species at Ketambe, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, Peter S. Ungar, International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1995
6AN ASSESSMENT OF FOOD OVERLAP BETWEEN GIBBONS AND HORNBILLS, Chuti-on Kanwatanakid-Savini and Pilai Poonswad, Tommaso Savini, THE RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY 2009 57(1): 189–198
7"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access