Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Primates > Hominoidea > Hominidae > Pongo > Pongo pygmaeus

Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) is a species of orangutan native to the island of Borneo. Together with the Sumatran orangutan, it belongs to the only genus of great apes native to Asia. Like the other great apes, orangutans are highly intelligent, displaying advanced tool use and distinct cultural patterns in the wild. Orangutans share approximately 97% of their DNA with humans. The Bornean orangutan is a critically endangered species, with deforestation, palm oil plantations and hunting posing a serious threat to its continued existence.
View Wikipedia Record: Pongo pygmaeus


Pongo pygmaeus morio (North-east Bornean Orangutan)
Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus (North-west Bornean Orangutan)
Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii (Central Bornean Orangutan)

Endangered Species

Status: Critically Endangered
View IUCN Record: Pongo pygmaeus

EDGE Analysis

The orangutan is the only great ape that occurs outside Africa, and is the largest arboreal mammal in the world. Orangutans are extremely intelligent, and have shown evidence of tool use and culture - traits once believed to be uniquely human. Despite being one of our closest relatives, human activities are having a devastating impact on the species. Orangutans are the slowest breeding of all mammal species, giving birth to a single young every 6-8 years. With such a low reproductive rate even a small decrease in numbers can lead to extinction. Scientists predict that unless immediate action is taken, this peaceful primate could be the first great ape to become extinct in the wild.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 13.63
EDGE Score: 4.76
View EDGE Record: Pongo pygmaeus


Adult Weight [2]  123.46 lbs (56.00 kg)
Birth Weight [3]  3.83 lbs (1.74 kg)
Female Weight [2]  81.57 lbs (37.00 kg)
Male Weight [2]  165.35 lbs (75.00 kg)
Weight Dimorphism [2]  102.7 %
Female Maturity [3]  7 years
Male Maturity [3]  7 years
Diet [4]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Frugivore
Diet - Fruit [4]  80 %
Diet - Invertibrates [4]  10 %
Diet - Vertibrates [4]  10 %
Forages - Arboreal [4]  100 %
Arboreal [1]  Yes
Gestation [3]  8 months 9 days
Litter Size [3]  1
Litters / Year [3]  0
Maximum Longevity [3]  59 years
Weaning [3]  2 years 9 months


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Borneo lowland rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo montane rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo peat swamp forests Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sundaland heath forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Batang Ai National Park II 62638 Sarawak, Malaysia
Betung Kerihun National Park II 1945086 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Danau Sentarum National Park 347674 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Gunung Leuser National Park II 2203368 Sumatra, Indonesia
Gunung Niut Wildlife Reserve Nature Reserve IV 409109 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Gunung Palung National Park II 271203 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Kutai National Park II 560076 East Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Tanjung Puting National Park II 987160 Kalimantan, Indonesia  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand Yes

Prey / Diet

Baccaurea deflexa[5]
Bischofia javanica (Javanese bishopwood)[5]
Cananga odorata (ilang-ilang)[5]
Cissus nodosa (Javanese treebine)[5]
Ficus acamptophylla[6]
Ficus adenosperma[6]
Ficus altissima (false banyan)[6]
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)[6]
Ficus binnendykii[6]
Ficus consociata[6]
Ficus crassiramea[6]
Ficus crassiramea subsp. crassiramea[6]
Ficus crassiramea subsp. stupenda[6]
Ficus delosyce[6]
Ficus deltoidea (mistletoe fig)[6]
Ficus drupacea (brown-woolly fig)[6]
Ficus excavata[6]
Ficus grewiifolia[6]
Ficus inaequifolia[6]
Ficus kerkhoveni[6]
Ficus midotis[6]
Ficus minahassae (clustertree)[6]
Ficus obscura[6]
Ficus pellucidopunctata[6]
Ficus pendens[6]
Ficus ruginervia[6]
Ficus sagittata[6]
Ficus schwarzii[6]
Ficus subgelderi[6]
Ficus sumatrana[6]
Ficus sundaica[6]
Ficus thonningii (Chinese banyan)[6]
Ficus trichocarpa[6]
Ficus uniglandulosa[6]
Ficus virens[6]
Ficus xylophylla[6]
Garcinia calophylla[5]
Mallotus sphaerocarpus[5]
Mastixia trichotoma[5]
Staphylea sphaerocarpa[5]
Tetrastigma hookeri[5]
Tinomiscium petiolare[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aceros corrugatus (Wrinkled Hornbill)11
Aceros waldeni (Walden's Hornbill)12
Alcippe brunneicauda (Brown Fulvetta)7
Alophoixus bres (Grey-cheeked Bulbul)10
Alophoixus finschii (Finsch's Bulbul)5
Alophoixus phaeocephalus (Yellow-bellied Bulbul)12
Anorrhinus galeritus (Bushy-crested Hornbill)15
Anthracoceros albirostris (Oriental Pied Hornbill)5
Anthracoceros malayanus (Black Hornbill)18
Arctictis binturong (Binturong)5
Berenicornis comatus (White-crowned Hornbill)4
Buceros bicornis (Great Hornbill)4
Buceros rhinoceros (Rhinoceros Hornbill)16
Callosciurus adamsi (ear-spot squirrel)5
Callosciurus nigrovittatus (black-striped squirrel)7
Callosciurus notatus (plantain squirrel)13
Callosciurus prevostii (Prevost's squirrel)16
Caloramphus fuliginosus (Brown Barbet)19
Calyptomena viridis (Green Broadbill)17
Chalcophaps indica (Common Emerald Dove)4
Chloropsis cochinchinensis (Blue-winged Leafbird)11
Chloropsis cyanopogon (Lesser Green Leafbird)17
Chloropsis sonnerati (Greater Green Leafbird)18
Cynopterus brachyotis (lesser short-nosed fruit bat)4
Dicaeum agile (Thick-billed Flowerpecker)5
Dicaeum chrysorrheum (Yellow-vented Flowerpecker)10
Dicaeum concolor (Nilgiri Flowerpecker)6
Dicaeum trigonostigma (Orange-bellied Flowerpecker)9
Ducula badia (Mountain Imperial Pigeon)4
Ducula bicolor (Pied Imperial Pigeon)6
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)6
Gracula religiosa (Hill Myna)10
Hemixos flavala (Ashy Bulbul)4
Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)20
Hylobates moloch (silvery gibbon)4
Iole olivacea (Buff-vented Bulbul)15
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)21
Ixos malaccensis (Streaked Bulbul)7
Loriculus galgulus (Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot)7
Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque)21
Megalaima australis (Blue-eared Barbet)19
Megalaima chrysopogon (Golden-whiskered Barbet)19
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)6
Megalaima henricii (Yellow-crowned Barbet)14
Megalaima mystacophanos (Red-throated Barbet)20
Megalaima rafflesii (Red-crowned Barbet)12
Oriolus chinensis (Black-naped Oriole)4
Oriolus xanthonotus (Dark-throated Oriole)7
Prionochilus maculatus (Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker)9
Prionochilus percussus (Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker)14
Prionochilus thoracicus (Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker)8
Prionochilus xanthopygius (Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker)10
Psittacula longicauda (Long-tailed Parakeet)4
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)4
Ptilinopus jambu (Jambu Fruit Dove)5
Pycnonotus atriceps (Black-headed Bulbul)9
Pycnonotus brunneus (Asian Red-eyed Bulbul)19
Pycnonotus cyaniventris (Grey-bellied Bulbul)11
Pycnonotus erythropthalmos (Spectacled Bulbul)15
Pycnonotus eutilotus (Puff-backed Bulbul)16
Pycnonotus goiavier (Yellow-vented Bulbul)10
Pycnonotus melanicterus (Black-crested Bulbul)6
Pycnonotus plumosus (Olive-winged Bulbul)7
Pycnonotus simplex (Cream-vented Bulbul)10
Pycnonotus squamatus (Scaly-breasted Bulbul)4
Ratufa affinis (pale giant squirrel)5
Ratufa bicolor (black giant squirrel)8
Rhinoplax vigil (Helmeted Hornbill)12
Rhyticeros undulatus (Wreathed Hornbill)11
Sundasciurus tenuis (slender squirrel)5
Symphalangus syndactylus (siamang)10
Treron capellei (Large Green Pigeon)10
Treron curvirostra (Thick-billed Green Pigeon)18
Treron olax (Little Green Pigeon)6
Tricholestes criniger (Hairy-backed Bulbul)7
Tupaia glis (Common Treeshrew)5
Tupaia minor (Pygmy Treeshrew)7


Parasitized by 
Bertiella studeri <Unverified Name>[7]
Dirofilaria immitis (Heartworm)[7]
Dirofilaria pongoi <Unverified Name>[7]
Entamoeba coli[8]
Entamoeba histolytica[8]
Gastrodiscoides hominis <Unverified Name>[7]
Strongyloides fuelleborni <Unverified Name>[7]
Strongyloides stercoralis (threadworm)[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aalborg Zoopygmaeus
AB Furuviksparkenabelii
Adelaide Zooabelii
Albuquerque Biological Park
Apenheul Primate Parkpygmaeus
Auckland Zoological Park
Audubon Zooabelii
Bioparc Valenciapygmaeus
Birmingham Zooabelii
Blackpool Zoopygmaeus
Boras Djurpark Zoopygmaeus
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Gardenabelii
Cameron Park Zoo
Cheyenne Mtn Zoological Parkabelii
Chiangmai Zoological Garden
Chicago Zoological Park
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Gardenabelii
Cleveland Metroparks Zoopygmaeus
Colchester Zoo
Cologne Zoopygmaeus
Columbus Zoo and Aquariumabelii
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dept. of National Zoological Gardens
Dudley Zoological Gardenspygmaeus
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trustabelii
Dusit (Bangkok) Zoological Park
El Paso Zooabelii
Erie Zoological Gardenspygmaeus
Espace Zoologique la Boissiere du Dore
Fort Wayne Children's Zoo
Fort Worth Zoological Park
Fresno Chaffee Zoo
Fundacao Parque Zoologico de Sao Paulo
Giza Zoological Gardenpygmaeus
Gladys Porter Zooabelii
Greenville Zoo
Guadalajara Zoo
Hai Park Kiriat Motzkin
Henry Vilas Zoopygmaeus
Hong Kong Zool. & Botanical Gardenspygmaeus
Honolulu Zoo
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Indianapolis Zoo
Jackson Zoological Park
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zooabelii
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
Johannesburg Zoological Gardensabelii
Kanpur Zoological Park
Kansas City Zoopygmaeus
Khao Kheow Open Zoo
Kristiansand Dyrepark ASApygmaeus
Little Rock Zoological Gardens
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardens
Louisville Zoological Garden
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunnabelii
Melbourne Zoo
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquariumabelii
Menagerie du Jardin des Plantespygmaeus
Miami Metrozooabelii
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Wybrzeza
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRLabelii
Moscow Zoological Parkabelii
Nakhon Ratchasima Zool. Park
Nehru Zoological Park
Neunkircher Zoologischer Garten GmbHabelii
North of England Zoological Societyabelii
Novosibirsk Zoological Parkpygmaeus
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFTpygmaeus
Oklahoma City Zoological Parkabelii
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Oregon Zooabelii
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.pygmaeus
Ouwehand Zoopygmaeus
Paignton Zoo Environmental Parkpygmaeus
Parc Zoologic de Barcelonapygmaeus
Parc Zoologique d'Amnevilleabelii
Parc Zoologique de La Palmyre
Patronato del Parque Zoologico de Leon
Perth Zoological Gardensabelii
Phoenix Zoopygmaeus
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium
Ragunan Zoological Park
Rolling Hills Wildlife Adventureabelii
Rome Zoo-Fondazione Bioparco di Roma
Rostock Zoologischer Garten
Sacramento Zooabelii
Saint Louis Zoological Parkabelii
San Diego Zoo
Schmutzer Primate Centre, Ragunan Zoo
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH
Sedgwick County Zooabelii
Seneca Park Zoo
Seoul Zoo
Singapore Zoological Gardens
Smithsonian National Zoological Park
Songkhla Zoo
St. Paul's Como Zoo
Taipei Zoo
Tama Zoological Parkpygmaeus
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo
Taronga Zoo
The Philadelphia Zooabelii
Tiergarten Heidelbergabelii
Tierpark Hagenbeck GmbHabelii
Toledo Zoological Gardens
Topeka Zoological Parkpygmaeus
Toronto Zooabelii
Twycross Zoopygmaeus
Usti nad Labem Zoo
Utah's Hogle Zoo
Virginia Zoological Park
Westfalischer Zoologischer Gtn Munsterpygmaeus
Wilhelma Zooabelii
Woodland Park Zoological Gardens
Yokohama Zool. Gardenspygmaeus
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)pygmaeus
Zoo Atlanta
Zoo de Fuengirola (Rain Forest SL)pygmaeus
Zoo de Santillana y Parque Cuaternarioabelii
Zoo Dortmundabelii
Zoo Dresden GmbHabelii
Zoo Duisburg AGabelii
Zoo Dvur Kralove, a.s.pygmaeus
Zoo Hannover GmbHabelii
Zoo Krefeld GmbHpygmaeus
Zoo Melakapygmaeus
Zoo Osnabrück
Zoo Parc de Beauvalpygmaeus
Zoo Taiping & Night Safari
Zoo Zürichabelii
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Ganabelii
Zoological Garden Pragueabelii
Zoological Society of Ireland-Dublinpygmaeus
Zoologicka zahrada Bojnicepygmaeus
Zoologicka Zahrada Bratislavaabelii
Zoologicka zahrada Liberecabelii
Zoologischer Garten Berlin AGabelii
Zoologischer Garten Frankfurtabelii
Zoologischer Garten Leipzigabelii
Zoologischer Garten Wuppertal

Range Map

Southern Asia;



San Diego Zoo's Ape Cam
Cam Time:
Hours: - ( - )


Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Pongo pygmaeus, Colin P. Groves, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 4, pp. –6 (1971)
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
5Fruit Preferences of Four Sympatric Primate Species at Ketambe, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, Peter S. Ungar, International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1995
6"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
8Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access