Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Rodentia > Hystricidae > Hystrix > Hystrix cristata
 

Hystrix cristata (African porcupine)

Wikipedia Abstract

The crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) is a species of rodent in the Hystricidae family.It is extant in mainland Italy, Sicily, North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa.
View Wikipedia Record: Hystrix cristata

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
3
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
22
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 8.2
EDGE Score: 2.22

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  44.09 lbs (20.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  2.20 lbs (1.00 kg)
Diet [2]  Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  20 %
Diet - Plants [2]  80 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  66 days
Litter Size [1]  2
Litters / Year [1]  2
Maximum Longevity [1]  28 years
Nocturnal [2]  Yes

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Appenine deciduous montane forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Atlantic coastal desert Mauritania, Western Sahara Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cameroonian Highlands forests Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Cross-Niger transition forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
East Saharan montane xeric woodlands Chad, Sudan Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Eastern Guinean forests Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Togo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eritrean coastal desert Eritrea Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Ethiopian montane forests Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Ethiopia, Eritrea Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian montane moorlands Ethiopia Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Guinean montane forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Hobyo grasslands and shrublands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Inner Niger Delta flooded savanna Mali Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests Italy, France Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Jos Plateau forest-grassland mosaic Nigeria Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Lake Chad flooded savanna Nigeria, Chad, Niger Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Mandara Plateau mosaic Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Masai xeric grasslands and shrublands Kenya Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets Morocco, Spain Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mediterranean woodlands and forests Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Niger Delta swamp forests Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nigerian lowland forests Nigeria, Benin Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Nile Delta flooded savanna Egypt Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
North Saharan steppe and woodlands Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northeastern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwestern Congolian lowland forests Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Po Basin mixed forests Italy Palearctic Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Red Sea coastal desert Egypt, Sudan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Saharan halophytics Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Mauritania, Western Sahara Palearctic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Serengeti volcanic grasslands Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Somali montane xeric woodlands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
South Appenine mixed montane forests Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
South Saharan steppe and woodlands Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Chad, Sudan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests France, Italy Palearctic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub    
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
West Saharan montane xeric woodlands Algeria, Niger, Mali, Mauritania Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Western Congolian swamp forests Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Guinean lowland forests Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alto corso del Fiume Fiora 17572 Italy  
Amboseli National Park National Reserve II 99624 Kenya
Area delle Gravine 66076 Italy  
Aree delle risorgive di Viarolo, Bacini di Torrile, Fascia golenale del Po 6479 Italy  
Bacini ex-zuccherificio di Argelato e Golena del Fiume Reno 776 Italy  
Bamingui-Bangoran Conservation Area National Park II 2783298 Central African Republic  
Bassa Valnerina: Monte Fionchi - Cascata delle Marmore 14933 Italy  
Biviere di Lentini, tratto mediano e foce del Fiume Simeto e area antistante la foce 12271 Italy  
Bocca Serriola 3227 Italy  
Boschi di San Luca e Destra Reno 4821 Italy  
Bosco di Chiusi e Paduletta di Ramone 1035 Italy  
Brughiere dell'Alpe di Poti 2824 Italy  
Calamocarro-Benzú 1487 Spain  
Calanchi di Civita di Bagnoregio 3934 Italy  
Canalone del Tripodo 4757 Italy  
Castel Porziano (Tenuta presidenziale) 14923 Italy  
Complesso di Monterufoli 12437 Italy  
Comprensorio Bracciano-Martignano 48319 Italy  
Comprensorio Tolfetano-Cerite-Manziate 166977 Italy  
Crete di Camposodo e Crete di Leonina 4594 Italy  
Dinder National Park II 2088300 Sudan  
Dolomiti di Pietrapertosa 3244 Italy  
Foresta Gallipoli - Cognato 10500 Italy  
Foresta di Campigna, Foresta la Lama, Monte Falco 9983 Italy  
Foret Domaniale du Circeo State Nature Reserve IV 4785 Italy  
Gessi Bolognesi, Calanchi dell'Abbadessa 10616 Italy  
Gravine di Matera 16536 Italy  
Kora National Park II 409762 Kenya
Laghetti di Preola e Gorghi Tondi, Sciare di Mazara e Pantano Leone 4082 Italy  
Lago di Pergusa 1058 Italy  
Lago di Piediluco - Monte Maro 2864 Italy  
Lago di Vico Monte Venere e Monte Fogliano 5236 Italy  
Laguna di Orbetello 9128 Italy  
Lake Manyara National Park II 78767 Tanzania  
Lucciolabella 3501 Italy  
Massiccio del Monte Cairo (aree sommitali) 6887 Italy  
Monte Argentario, Isolotto di Porto Ercole e Argentarola 14142 Italy  
Monte Cofano, Capo San Vito e Monte Sparagio 37693 Italy    
Monte Dogana 3052 Italy  
Monte Gemelli, Monte Guffone 32991 Italy  
Monte Ginezzo 3964 Italy  
Monte Iato, Kumeta, Maganoce e Pizzo Parrino 7497 Italy  
Monte Labbro e alta valle dell'Albegna 15565 Italy  
Monte Matassaro, Monte Gradara e Monte Signora 9331 Italy    
Monte Oliveto Maggiore e Crete di Asciano 8167 Italy  
Monte Pecoraro e Pizzo Cirina 21258 Italy    
Monte Romano 9494 Italy  
Monte Rufeno 5780 Italy  
Monte Tancia e Monte Pizzuto 16855 Italy  
Monte Vulture 4651 Italy  
Monte degli Elci e Monte Grottone 1273 Italy  
Monti Ausoni e Aurunci 154013 Italy  
Monti Lepini 115954 Italy  
Monti Lucretili 28753 Italy  
Monti Nebrodi 173651 Italy  
Monti Peloritani, Dorsale Curcuraci, Antennamare e area marina dello stretto di Messina 69172 Italy    
Monti Reatini 58028 Italy  
Monti Sibillini (versante umbro) 43725 Italy  
Monti Sicani, Rocca Busambra e Bosco della Ficuzza 144567 Italy  
Monti Simbruini 49139 Italy  
Monti Simbruini ed Ernici 128739 Italy  
Monti Vulsini 5903 Italy  
Monti dell'Uccellina 10974 Italy  
Mount Kenya Biosphere Reserve II 146694 Kenya
Murgia Alta 311059 Italy  
Nechisar National Park II 256137 Ethiopia  
Padule della Trappola, Bocca d'Ombrone 1208 Italy  
Padule di Bolgheri 1426 Italy  
Padule di Fucecchio 5142 Italy  
Paludi di Capo Feto e Margi Spanò 741 Italy    
Pantani della Sicilia sud-orientale, Morghella, di Marzamemi, di Punta Pilieri e Vendicari 8481 Italy  
Parc National de Djebel Chambi National Park II 24999 Tunisia  
Parc National de l'lchkeul National Park 27893 Tunisia  
Parc National de la Comoe National Park II 2902593 Côte d'Ivoire  
Parc National du Niokolo-Koba National Park II 2046878 Senegal  
Parco Del Cilento e Vallo de Diano National Park 551095 Italy
Parco Nazionale Gran Sasso - Monti della Laga 354129 Italy  
Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo, Lazio e Molise ed aree limitrofe 126392 Italy  
Parco Nazionale del Circeo 54771 Italy  
Parco Nazionale della Maiella 183061 Italy  
Pascoli montani e cespuglieti del Pratomagno 16687 Italy  
Piano dei Grilli 3062 Italy  
Pineta Granducale dell'Uccellina 1547 Italy  
Promontorio Gianola e Monte di Scauri 554 Italy  
Queen Elizabeth National Park II 522052 Uganda
Reserve de la Biosphere de la Pendjari Biosphere Reserve 217453 Benin  
Riserva naturale Montagne della Duchessa 8617 Italy  
Sassi di Roccamalatina e di Sant’Andrea 2960 Italy  
Sassoguidano, Gaiato 5963 Italy  
Sciare di Roccazzo della Bandiera 6823 Italy  
Selva Pisana 23863 Italy  
Selva del Lamone e Monti di Castro 14097 Italy  
Sirente Velino 146123 Italy  
Torre Manfria, Biviere e Piana di Gela 44096 Italy  
Valle Basento - Ferrandina Scalo 1661 Italy  
Valle Basento Grassano Scalo - Grottole 1925 Italy  
Valle del Bove 7663 Italy  
Valle del Tevere: Laghi di Corbara - Alviano 17989 Italy  
Valle dell'Inferno e Bandella 2207 Italy  
Vena del Gesso Romagnola 13690 Italy  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Guinean Forests of West Africa Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Mediterranean Basin Algeria, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey No

Prey / Diet

Allium ursinum (bear garlic)[3]
Arum maculatum (cuckoo pint)[3]
Asparagus officinalis (garden asparagus)[3]
Cyclamen purpurascens (cyclamen)[3]
Dioscorea communis (Black bryony)[3]
Fraxinus ornus (flowering ash)[3]
Iris relicta (German Iris)[3]
Rumex crispus (narrowleaf dock)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Gallotia galloti (Gallot's Lizard)1
Simyra albovenosa (Reed Dagger)1
Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)2

Predators

Dendroaspis polylepis (Black Mamba)[4]
Lycaon pictus (African wild dog)[4]
Panthera pardus (Leopard)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Echidnophaga larina[5]
Pariodontis riggenbachi riggenbachi[5]
Pulex irritans (human flea)[5]
Synosternus pallidus[5]
Trichinella britovi <Unverified Name>[6]
Trichocephalus affinis <Unverified Name>[6]
Trichocephalus infundibulus <Unverified Name>[6]
Wellcomia roussilloni <Unverified Name>[6]
Wellcomia stossichi <Unverified Name>[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)
Alameda Park Zoo
Albuquerque Biological Park
Badoca Safari Park
Blaavand Zoo
Bosphorus Zoo (Bogaziçi Hayvanat
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
Dallas Zoo
Dierenpark de Oliemeulen (Zoo Tilburg)
Domaine Zoologique de Pescheray
Faunia (Parque Biologico De Madrid,SA)
Giza Zoological Garden
Inokashira Park Zoo
International Animal Exchange, Inc.
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoo
Kittenberger Zoo
Louisiana Purchase Gardens & Zoo
Marwell Wildlife
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRL
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
Olmense Zoo
 cristata
Orana Wildlife Park
Out of Africa Wildlife Park
Parc Animalier de Sainte Croix
Parc Zoologique de Champrépus
Parc Zoologique de la Barben
Parc Zoologique de Tregomeur
Parco Zoo di Falconara
Planete Sauvage
Potter Park Zoological Gardens
Safari de Peaugres
San Diego Zoo
Societa Zoologica Di Pistoia S.R.L
Sofia Zoological Gardens
Taipei Zoo
Tbilisi Zoo
The Living Desert Zoo and Gardens
Tiergarten Heidelberg
Tierpark Hagenbeck GmbH
Touroparc
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Utica Zoo
Wildlife World Zoo
Wingham Wildlife Park
Yokohama Zool. Gardens
Zoo and Aqua-Terrarium Ltd. Pécs
Zoo de Doue-la-Fontaine
Zoo de Jurques
Zoo Hannover GmbH
Zoo Krefeld GmbH
Zoologicka Zahrada Bratislava
Zoologico Nacional La Aurora
ZooWorld Zoological Botanical Conserv.

Range Map

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3THE HABITS AND INFLUENCE ON THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE OLD WORLD PORCUPINE Hystrix cristata L. IN THE NORTHERNMOST PART OF ITS RANGE, L. Santini, Proceedings of the 9th Vertebrate Pest Conference (1980), University of Nebraska - Lincoln
4The Serengeti food web: empirical quantification and analysis of topological changes under increasing human impact, Sara N. de Visser, Bernd P. Freymann and Han Olff, Journal of Animal Ecology 2011, 80, 484–494
5International Flea Database
6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access