Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Proboscidea > Elephantidae > Elephas > Elephas maximus
 

Elephas maximus (Asiatic Elephant; Asian Elephant)

Wikipedia Abstract

The Asian or Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) is the only living species of the genus Elephas and is distributed in Southeast Asia from India in the west to Borneo in the east. Three subspecies are recognized — Elephas maximus maximus from Sri Lanka, the Indian elephant or E. m. indicus from mainland Asia, and E. m. sumatranus from the island of Sumatra. Asian elephants are the largest living land animals in Asia. Since 1986, E.
View Wikipedia Record: Elephas maximus

Infraspecies

Elephas maximus indicus (Indian elephant)
Elephas maximus maximus (Sri Lankan elephant)
Elephas maximus sumatranus (Sumatran elephant)

Endangered Species

Status: Endangered
View IUCN Record: Elephas maximus

EDGE Analysis

The largest land mammal in Asia, this intelligent, highly social animal lives in small groups led by the dominant female, or 'matriarch’. The elephant play a crucial role in its forest ecosystem. Commonly referred to as a ‘keystone’ species, it helps to open up forest clearings and distributes the seeds of trees and shrubs. Threatened by poaching and the destruction of the forests in which they live, these magnificent animals are increasingly coming into conflict with the people sharing their habitat. Effective management of the species and its environment is required in order to resolve these issues.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
21
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
79
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 42.09
EDGE Score: 5.84
View EDGE Record: Elephas maximus

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  3.50 tons (3,178.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  235.90 lbs (107.00 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  9 years
Male Maturity [1]  9 years
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Gestation [1]  1 year 9 months
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  0
Maximum Longevity [1]  66 years
Speed [3]  15.21 MPH (6.8 m/s)
Weaning [1]  1 year 6 months

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Borneo lowland rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo montane rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cardamom Mountains rain forests Cambodia, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya freshwater swamp forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests Myanmar, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Himalayan subtropical pine forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Indochina mangroves Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Irrawaddy dry forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Luang Prabang montane rain forests Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Malabar Coast moist forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Myanmar Coast mangroves India, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Mangroves  
Myanmar coastal rain forests Myanmar, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests India, Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Northern Annamites rain forests Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Thailand-Laos moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle subtropical forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Triangle temperate forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Northern Vietnam lowland rain forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests China Palearctic Temperate Coniferous Forests
Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka lowland rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka montane rain forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran lowland rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran peat swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran tropical pine forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sunda Shelf mangroves Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Western Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Pakistan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests China Palearctic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park II 421336 Myanmar  
Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park II 836773 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Bukit Kutu Wildlife Reserve IV 4602 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Bukit Tigah Puluh National Park 360578 Sumatra, Indonesia
Bung Kroeng Kavia Non-hunting Area   Thailand      
Cat Tien National Park II 188942 Viet Nam
Corbett National Park II 141853 Uttaranchal, India
Dong Ampham National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 496673 Laos  
Dong Hua Sao National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 236373 Laos  
Eravikulam National Park II 39436 Kerala, India
Erawan National Park II 131204 Thailand
Gunung Leuser National Park II 2203368 Sumatra, Indonesia
Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 699629 Thailand  
Kaeng Krachan National Park II 753452 Thailand
Kerinci Seblat National Park II 3463483 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Khammouane Limestone National Biodiversity Conservation National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 558864 Laos  
Khao Ang Ru Nai Wildlife Sanctuary IV 248699 Thailand  
Khao Luang National Park II 143331 Thailand
Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuary IV 182353 Thailand  
Khao Sok National Park II 159284 Thailand
Khao Yai National Park II 542694 Thailand
Khaoen Si Nakarin National Park II 459154 Thailand
Khlong Lan National Park II 104466 Thailand
Khlong Nakha Wildlife Sanctuary IV 117887 Thailand  
Khlong Phraya Wildlife Sanctuary IV 36624 Thailand  
Khlong Saeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 243425 Thailand  
Krau Wildlife Reserve IV 149823 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Kudremukh National Park II 202772 Karnataka, India  
Mae Tuen Wildlife Sanctuary IV 307947 Thailand  
Mae Wong National Park II 221459 Thailand
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Nakai-Nam Theun National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 878205 Laos  
Nam Et National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 636243 Laos  
Nam Ha National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 539941 Laos  
Nam Kading National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 419016 Laos  
Nam Kong National Biodiversity Conservation Area   Laos      
Nam Nao National Park II 240993 Thailand
Nam Phoun National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 439874 Laos  
Nam Xam National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 186111 Laos  
Namdapha National Park II   Arunachal Pradesh, India
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve 1364022 India  
Om Koi Wildlife Sanctuary IV 299357 Thailand  
Palamau Tiger Reserve National Park II 329056 Bihar, India
Pang Sida National Park II 211956 Thailand
Pasoh Virgin Jungle Reserve Ia   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Phou Dene Dinh National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 463651 Laos  
Phou Khao Khoay National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 447452 Laos  
Phou Xang He National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 285962 Laos  
Phou Xiengthong National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 281641 Laos  
Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary IV 391278 Thailand  
Phu Kradung National Park II 63197 Thailand
Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 227671 Thailand  
Phu Phan National Park II 176082 Thailand
Pidaung Wildlife Sanctuary III 244241 Myanmar  
Rajaji National Park II 196637 Uttaranchal, India  
Sai Yok National Park II 235556 Thailand
Salawin National Park II 400497 Thailand
Shwe U Daung Reserve Wildlife Sanctuary III 21583 Myanmar  
Simlipal Tiger Reserve National Park II 103465 Orissa, India  
Sinharaja Forest Reserve IV 16201 Sri Lanka  
Tabin Wildlife Reserve IV 275051 Sabah, Malaysia  
Taman Negara National Park II 1122273 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Tasek Bera Forest Reserve   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Thap Lan National Park II 550979 Thailand
Thung Salaeng Luang National Park II 315222 Thailand
Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary IV 918234 Thailand  
Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 45094 Thailand  
Ulu Muda Forest Reserve   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Way Kambas National Park II 306926 Sumatra, Indonesia
Wilpattu National Park II 320298 Sri Lanka  
Xe Bang Nouane National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 322522 Laos  
Xe Pian National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 645271 Laos  
Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve V 567531 Yunnan, China  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Mountains of Southwest China China, Myanmar No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Emblem of

Thailand

Prey / Diet

Acacia chundra (Red Cutch)[4]
Acacia ferruginea (Velvelam)[4]
Acacia horrida (Cape Gum)[4]
Acacia leucophloea (White Babul)[4]
Acacia pennata[4]
Acacia polyacantha (catechu tree)[4]
Acacia torta[4]
Albizia amara (Wienja)[4]
Cajanus albicans[4]
Capparis rotundifolia[4]
Commiphora caudata[4]
Dendrocalamus strictus (male bamboo)[4]
Dichrostachys cinerea (aroma)[4]
Ficus altissima (false banyan)[5]
Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)[5]
Grewia tiliifolia[4]
Hardwickia binata[4]
Helicteres isora[4]
Kydia calycina[4]
Mimosa rubicaulis[4]
Phoenix loureiroi[4]
Tamarindus indica (Tamarind)[4]
Tectona grandis (teak)[4]
Ziziphus xylopyrus[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aceros cassidix (Knobbed Hornbill)2
Alophoixus pallidus (Puff-throated Bulbul)2
Anorrhinus tickelli (Brown Hornbill)2
Anthracoceros albirostris (Oriental Pied Hornbill)2
Axis axis (chital)2
Bos frontalis (gaur)4
Buceros bicornis (Great Hornbill)2
Callosciurus finlaysonii (Finlayson's squirrel)2
Caloramphus fuliginosus (Brown Barbet)2
Calyptomena viridis (Green Broadbill)2
Cervus unicolor (sambar)5
Chloropsis cochinchinensis (Blue-winged Leafbird)2
Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)2
Ducula badia (Mountain Imperial Pigeon)2
Gracula religiosa (Hill Myna)2
Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)2
Hylobates moloch (silvery gibbon)2
Iole propinqua (Grey-eyed Bulbul)2
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)2
Loriculus vernalis (Vernal Hanging Parrot)2
Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque)2
Macaca radiata (bonnet macaque)2
Megalaima australis (Blue-eared Barbet)2
Megalaima chrysopogon (Golden-whiskered Barbet)2
Megalaima faiostricta (Green-eared Barbet)2
Megalaima lineata (Lineated Barbet)2
Megalaima mystacophanos (Red-throated Barbet)2
Muntiacus muntjak (Indian muntjac)2
Oriolus chinensis (Black-naped Oriole)2
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)2
Pycnonotus atriceps (Black-headed Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus brunneus (Asian Red-eyed Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus melanicterus (Black-crested Bulbul)2
Ratufa bicolor (black giant squirrel)2
Rhinoplax vigil (Helmeted Hornbill)2
Rhyticeros undulatus (Wreathed Hornbill)2
Trachypithecus johnii (hooded leaf monkey)4
Treron capellei (Large Green Pigeon)2
Treron curvirostra (Thick-billed Green Pigeon)2
Zosterops palpebrosus (Oriental White-eye)2

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Fasciola jacksoni <Unverified Name>[6]
Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus <Unverified Name>[6]
Gastrodiscus secundus <Unverified Name>[6]
Hawkesius hawkesi <Unverified Name>[6]
Homalogaster paloniae <Unverified Name>[6]
Pfenderius birmanicus <Unverified Name>[6]
Pfenderius heterocaeca <Unverified Name>[6]
Pfenderius papillatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Pseudodiscus collinsi <Unverified Name>[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)
Albuquerque Biological Park
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstan
Artis Zoo
Assam State Zoo Botanical Garden
Auckland Zoological Park
Audubon Zoo
Aurangabad Municipal Zoo
Bannerghatta Biological Park
Bellewaerde Park
Bhagwan Birsa Munda Biological Park
Blackpool Zooindicus
Bowmanville Zoological Park
BREC's Baton Rouge Zoo
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Societyindicus
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Buffalo Zoological Gardensindicus
Burger's Zoo
Buttonwood Park Zoo
Calgary Zoo, Garden & Prehistoric Park
 maximus
Canadian Zoological Systems Limitedindicus
Chiangmai Zoological Garden
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Gardenhirsutus
 indicus
City of Belfast Zoo
Cologne Zoo
 hirsutus
 maximus
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
Copenhagen Zoo
 indicus
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dept. of National Zoological Gardensmaximus
Dickerson Park Zoo
 indicus
Dierenpark Amersfoort
Dierenpark Emmen
Dierenrijk Europa
Dr. Shivarama Karanth Pilikula Biol.Pk
DSI Givskud Zoo
El Paso Zoo
Fort Worth Zoological Park
 indicus
Fresno Chaffee Zoo
Giza Zoological Garden
Hai Park Kiriat Motzkin
Hawthorn Corporation
Honolulu Zoo
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Inokashira Park Zoo
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
Jardin Zoologique de la Ville de Lyon
Kaliningrad Zoomaximus
Khao Kheow Open Zoo
 indicus
Kharkiv Zoo
Kolmardens Djurpark AB
Le Pal, Parc Animalier
 indicus
Little Rock Zoological Gardens
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardensindicus
Louisville Zoological Garden
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunn
Melbourne Zoo
Miami Metrozoo
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodz
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Wybrzeza
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny, Plock
Moscow Zoological Park
Nagoya Higashiyama Zoo
 maximus
Nandankanan Biological Park
National Trust for Nature Conservation
Nehru Zoological Parkindicus
Neunkircher Zoologischer Garten GmbH
Niabi Zoo
North of England Zoological Society
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
 indicus
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
 indicus
Oregon Zoo
 indicus
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.indicus
Parc Paradisio S.A.
 sumatranus
Parc Zoologique d'Amiens
Parc Zoologique de la Barben
Parc Zoologique de La Palmyre
Park i Ogrod Zoologiczny w Krakowie
Permskii Zoologicheskii Sad
Perth Zoological Gardens
 hirsutus
Phoenix Zoo
Point Defiance Zoo & Aquariumindicus
Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park
Reid Park Zooindicus
Rome Zoo-Fondazione Bioparco di Roma
Rosamond Gifford Zoo at Burnet Park
Rotterdam Zoo
 indicus
Saint Louis Zoological Park
 indicus
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquar
San Diego Zoo
 indicus
 maximus
Sanjay Gandhi Biological Park
Santa Barbara Zoological Gardens
Seoul Zoo
Sepahijala Zoological Park
Shri Sayaji Baug Zooindicus
Singapore Zoological Gardenshirsutus
 maximus
 sumatranus
Six Flags Discovery Kingdomindicus
Smithsonian National Zoological Parkindicus
 maximus
Societa Zoologica Di Pistoia S.R.L
Songkhla Zoo
Sri Chamarajendra Zoo (Mysore Zoo)
Taipei Zoo
Tama Zoological Parkmaximus
Taronga Zoomaximus
Tbilisi Zoo
Terra Natura S.A.
The Tisch Family Zoological Gardensindicus
Tiergarten Heidelberg
 indicus
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbH
Tierpark Hagenbeck GmbH
 indicus
Topeka Zoological Park
Touroparc
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museum
Twycross Zoo
Ueno Zoological Gardens
 indicus
Usti nad Labem Zoohirsutus
Valley Zoo & John Janzen Nature Centermaximus
Veermata Jijabai Bhosle Udyan & Zooindicus
Western Plains Zoomaximus
Westfalischer Zoologischer Gtn Munster
 indicus
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park
Wilhelma Zoo
Woburn Safari Park
Woodland Park Zoological Gardens
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC
Yokohama Zool. Gardensindicus
Zivalski vrt Ljubljana
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo de Pont-Scorff
Zoo Hannover GmbH
 hirsutus
 indicus
Zoo Krefeld GmbH
Zoo Melakahirsutus
Zoo of Antwerp
 indicus
Zoo Taiping & Night Safarihirsutus
Zoo Zürich
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Gan
Zoological Garden Pragueindicus
Zoological Society of Ireland-Dublin
Zoologicka zahrada Ostrava
 maximus
Zoologicka zahrada Liberec
Zoologico Nacional La Aurora
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbH
Zoologischer Garten Leipzig
 indicus
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg

Range Map

Southern Asia;

Photos

Webcams


Twycross Zoo Elephant Cam
Cam Time:
Hours: - ( - )
Feeding: Dly

Citations

Species recognized by Wilson D.E, 2007-08-15, in Catalog of Life 2011
Endangered Status provided by IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2 <www.iucnredlist.org> Downloaded on 11 April 2013.
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3The locomotor kinematics of Asian and African elephants: changes with speed and size, John R. Hutchinson, Delf Schwerda, Daniel J. Famini, Robert H. I. Dale, Martin S. Fischer and Rodger Kram, The Journal of Experimental Biology 209, 3812-3827 (2006) 4Ecology of the Asian Elephant in Southern India. II. Feeding Habits and Crop Raiding Patterns, R. Sukumar, Journal of Tropical Ecology Vol. 6, No. 1 (Feb., 1990), pp. 33-53 5"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572 6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), Conservation International & NatureServe.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011