Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Ursidae > Helarctos > Helarctos malayanus
 

Helarctos malayanus (Sun bear)

Wikipedia Abstract

The sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) is a bear found in tropical forest habitats of Southeast Asia. It is classified as Vulnerable by IUCN as the large-scale deforestation that has occurred throughout Southeast Asia over the past three decades has dramatically reduced suitable habitat for the sun bear. The global population is thought to have declined by more than 30% over the past three bear generations.
View Wikipedia Record: Helarctos malayanus

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
8
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
54
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 16.5
EDGE Score: 4.25

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  101.41 lbs (46.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  325 grams
Female Maturity [1]  6 years 6 months
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Frugivore, Granivore
Diet - Endothermic [2]  20 %
Diet - Fruit [2]  20 %
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  50 %
Diet - Seeds [2]  10 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  3 months 5 days
Litter Size [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  36 years
Nocturnal [3]  Yes
Weaning [1]  90 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Borneo lowland rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo montane rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Borneo peat swamp forests Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cardamom Mountains rain forests Cambodia, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Indochina dry forests Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya freshwater swamp forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Indochina mangroves Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Irrawaddy dry forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests Myanmar Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kayah-Karen montane rain forests Myanmar, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Kinabalu montane alpine meadows Malaysia Indo-Malayan Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Luang Prabang montane rain forests Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Myanmar Coast mangroves India, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Mangroves  
Myanmar coastal rain forests Myanmar, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Annamites rain forests Laos, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Indochina subtropical forests China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Thailand-Laos moist deciduous forests Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Vietnam lowland rain forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests Malaysia, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peninsular Malaysian rain forests Indonesia, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Taiwan monsoon rain forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests Viet Nam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southern Annamites montane rain forests Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Vietnam lowland dry forests Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran freshwater swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran lowland rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran montane rain forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran peat swamp forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sumatran tropical pine forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Sunda Shelf mangroves Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Sundaland heath forests Indonesia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests Taiwan Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tonle Sap freshwater swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tonle Sap-Mekong peat swamp forests Cambodia, Viet Nam Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park II 421336 Myanmar  
Batang Ai National Park II 62638 Sarawak, Malaysia
Berbak National Park II 423927 Sumatra, Indonesia
Betung Kerihun National Park II 1945086 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park II 836773 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Bukit Kutu Wildlife Reserve IV 4602 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Bukit Tigah Puluh National Park 360578 Sumatra, Indonesia
Bung Kroeng Kavia Non-hunting Area   Thailand      
Cat Tien National Park II 188942 Viet Nam
Danau Sentarum National Park 347674 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Doi Pha Chang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 144177 Thailand  
Dong Ampham National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 496673 Laos  
Dong Hua Sao National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 236373 Laos  
Erawan National Park II 131204 Thailand
Gaoligong Mountain National Nature Reserve V 1245925 Yunnan, China  
Gunung Leuser National Park II 2203368 Sumatra, Indonesia
Gunung Niut Wildlife Reserve Nature Reserve IV 409109 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Gunung Palung National Park II 271203 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Hin Namno National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 214373 Laos  
Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 699629 Thailand  
Kaeng Krachan National Park II 753452 Thailand
Kerinci Seblat National Park II 3463483 Sumatra, Indonesia  
Khammouane Limestone National Biodiversity Conservation National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 558864 Laos  
Khao Lam Pi - Hat Thai Muang National Marine Park II 17646 Thailand
Khao Luang National Park II 143331 Thailand
Khao Phanom Bencha National Park II 12840 Thailand
Khao Pra Bang Kram Wildlife Sanctuary IV 30009 Thailand  
Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuary IV 182353 Thailand  
Khao Sok National Park II 159284 Thailand
Khao Yai National Park II 542694 Thailand
Khaoen Si Nakarin National Park II 459154 Thailand
Khlong Lan National Park II 104466 Thailand
Khlong Nakha Wildlife Sanctuary IV 117887 Thailand  
Khlong Saeng Wildlife Sanctuary IV 243425 Thailand  
Krau Wildlife Reserve IV 149823 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Kutai National Park II 560076 East Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Mae Wong National Park II 221459 Thailand
Nam Kong National Biodiversity Conservation Area   Laos      
Pang Sida National Park II 211956 Thailand
Phou Xang He National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 285962 Laos  
Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary IV 391278 Thailand  
Phu Phan National Park II 176082 Thailand
Sai Yok National Park II 235556 Thailand
Salawin National Park II 400497 Thailand
Sungai Lalang Forest Reserve Virgin Jungle Reserve Ia   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Taman Negara National Park II 1122273 Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Tanjung Puting National Park II 987160 Kalimantan, Indonesia  
Thap Lan National Park II 550979 Thailand
Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary IV 918234 Thailand  
Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary IV 45094 Thailand  
Ulu Muda Forest Reserve   Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia  
Ulu Temburong National Park II 123279 Brunei Darussalam  
Way Kambas National Park II 306926 Sumatra, Indonesia
Xe Pian National Biodiversity Conservation Area VI 645271 Laos  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Sundaland Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand No

Prey / Diet

Canarium pilosum[4]
Durio zibethinus (durian)[4]
Erycibe maingayi[4]
Ficus consociata[4]
Ficus crassiramea subsp. stupenda[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aceros corrugatus (Wrinkled Hornbill)1
Aceros waldeni (Walden's Hornbill)2
Alophoixus bres (Grey-cheeked Bulbul)1
Alophoixus phaeocephalus (Yellow-bellied Bulbul)1
Anorrhinus galeritus (Bushy-crested Hornbill)2
Anthracoceros malayanus (Black Hornbill)2
Arctictis binturong (Binturong)1
Arctogalidia trivirgata (Small-toothed Palm Civet)1
Berenicornis comatus (White-crowned Hornbill)1
Buceros rhinoceros (Rhinoceros Hornbill)1
Callosciurus adamsi (ear-spot squirrel)1
Callosciurus nigrovittatus (black-striped squirrel)1
Callosciurus notatus (plantain squirrel)2
Callosciurus prevostii (Prevost's squirrel)2
Caloramphus fuliginosus (Brown Barbet)2
Calyptomena viridis (Green Broadbill)2
Chalcophaps indica (Common Emerald Dove)1
Chloropsis cochinchinensis (Blue-winged Leafbird)1
Chloropsis cyanopogon (Lesser Green Leafbird)2
Chloropsis sonnerati (Greater Green Leafbird)2
Corvus enca (Slender-billed Crow)1
Dicaeum agile (Thick-billed Flowerpecker)1
Dicaeum concolor (Nilgiri Flowerpecker)1
Dicaeum trigonostigma (Orange-bellied Flowerpecker)1
Ducula aenea (Green Imperial Pigeon)1
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)1
Geokichla interpres (Chestnut-capped Thrush)1
Gracula religiosa (Hill Myna)1
Hylobates agilis (agile gibbon)1
Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)1
Iole olivacea (Buff-vented Bulbul)2
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)2
Ixos malaccensis (Streaked Bulbul)1
Loriculus galgulus (Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot)1
Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque)2
Macaca nemestrina (pigtail macaque)1
Martes flavigula (Yellow-throated Marten)1
Megalaima australis (Blue-eared Barbet)2
Megalaima chrysopogon (Golden-whiskered Barbet)2
Megalaima henricii (Yellow-crowned Barbet)2
Megalaima mystacophanos (Red-throated Barbet)2
Megalaima rafflesii (Red-crowned Barbet)2
Oriolus xanthonotus (Dark-throated Oriole)1
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)2
Presbytis rubicunda (red leaf monkey)1
Prionochilus maculatus (Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker)1
Prionochilus percussus (Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker)2
Prionochilus thoracicus (Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker)1
Prionochilus xanthopygius (Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker)1
Pteropus vampyrus (large flying fox)1
Ptilinopus jambu (Jambu Fruit Dove)1
Pycnonotus brunneus (Asian Red-eyed Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus erythropthalmos (Spectacled Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus eutilotus (Puff-backed Bulbul)2
Ratufa affinis (pale giant squirrel)1
Ratufa bicolor (black giant squirrel)1
Rhinoplax vigil (Helmeted Hornbill)1
Rhyticeros undulatus (Wreathed Hornbill)1
Simias concolor (pig-tailed langur)1
Sus barbatus (bearded pig)1
Symphalangus syndactylus (siamang)2
Treron capellei (Large Green Pigeon)1
Treron curvirostra (Thick-billed Green Pigeon)2
Tupaia glis (Common Treeshrew)2
Tupaia minor (Pygmy Treeshrew)2
Turdus obscurus (Eyebrowed Thrush)1

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Adelaide Zoomalayanus
Akron Zoological Park
Audubon Zoo
 euryspilus
Burger's Zoo
 malayanus
Chiangmai Zoological Garden
City of Belfast Zoo
Cleveland Metroparks Zooeuryspilus
Colchester Zoo
Cologne Zoo
 malayanus
Columbus Zoo and Aquariumeuryspilus
Dusit (Bangkok) Zoological Park
Edinburgh Zoo-Scottish National Zoomalayanus
El Paso Zoo
Espace Zoolog de St-Martin-la-Plaine
Fort Worth Zoological Park
Gladys Porter Zoo
 euryspilus
Honolulu Zoo
 euryspilus
International Animal Exchange, Inc.
Khao Kheow Open Zoo
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens
 euryspilus
Little Rock Zoological Gardens
Miami Metrozoo
 malayanus
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodzmalayanus
Miller Park Zoo
Nagoya Higashiyama Zoo
Nakhon Ratchasima Zool. Park
National Zoo & Aquarium
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFTmalayanus
Oakland Zooeuryspilus
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Oregon Zoo
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.
Parc Zoologique de Tregomeur
 malayanus
Perth Zoological Gardens
Pueblo Zoo
Reid Park Zoo
Safaripark Beekse Bergen
 malayanus
Saint Louis Zoological Parkeuryspilus
San Diego Zooeuryspilus
Singapore Zoological Gardens
 malayanus
Songkhla Zoo
Taipei Zoo
Taronga Zoomalayanus
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbHmalayanus
Touroparc
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Usti nad Labem Zoo
 malayanus
Wellington Zoo Trust
 malayanus
Westfalischer Zoologischer Gtn Munster
Woodland Park Zoological Gardenseuryspilus
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo Atlanta
 malayanus
Zoo Decin - Pastyrska Stena
Zoo Melaka
Zoo Negara Malaysia
Zoo Taiping & Night Safari
 malayanus
Zoologicka Zahrada Jihlava
Zoologicka zahrada Olomouc
Zoologická zahrada Hodonínmalayanus
Zoologischer Garten Basel

Range Map

Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
4Seed dispersal by the sun bear Helarctos malayanus in Central Borneo, Kim McConkey and Mauro Galetti, Journal of Tropical Ecology (1999) 15:237–241
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access