Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Ursidae > Melursus > Melursus ursinus
 

Melursus ursinus (Sloth Bear)

Wikipedia Abstract

The sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), also known as the Stickney bear or labiated bear, is a nocturnal insectivorous bear species found wild within the Indian Subcontinent. The sloth bear evolved from ancestral brown bears during the Pleistocene and shares features found in insect-eating mammals through convergent evolution. The population isolated in Sri Lanka is considered a subspecies.
View Wikipedia Record: Melursus ursinus

Infraspecies

Melursus ursinus inornatus (Sri Lankan sloth bear)
Melursus ursinus ursinus (Indian sloth bear)

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
8
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
54
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 16.5
EDGE Score: 4.25

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  220.46 lbs (100.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  400 grams
Female Maturity [1]  3 years
Male Maturity [1]  3 years
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  10 %
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  70 %
Diet - Plants [2]  20 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  6 months 18 days
Litter Size [1]  2
Maximum Longevity [1]  33 years
Nocturnal [3]  Yes
Weaning [1]  76 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Coniferous Forests
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Himalayan subtropical pine forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests Myanmar, India, Bangladesh Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bandhavgarh National Park II 89210 Madhya Pradesh, India  
Eravikulam National Park II 39436 Kerala, India
Gandhi Sagar Sanctuary IV 223475 Madhya Pradesh, India  
Gomardah Sanctuary IV 72320 Chhattishgarh, India  
Indravati Tiger Reserve   Chhattishgarh, India      
Kanha Tiger Reserve National Park II 223971 Madhya Pradesh, India
Kudremukh National Park II 202772 Karnataka, India  
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Namdapha National Park II   Arunachal Pradesh, India
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve 1364022 India  
Palamau Tiger Reserve National Park II 329056 Bihar, India
Rajaji National Park II 196637 Uttaranchal, India  
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Simlipal Tiger Reserve National Park II 103465 Orissa, India  
Tamor Pingla Sanctuary IV 148780 Chhattishgarh, India  
Wilpattu National Park II 320298 Sri Lanka  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Aegle marmelos (Indian bael)[4]
Bombax ceiba (red silk cottontree)[5]
Cassia fistula (Pudding-pipe Tree)[4]
Diospyros ebenum (ebony)[4]
Dorylus labiatus[4]
Ficus benghalensis (Indian banyan)[4]
Ficus elmeri[6]
Ficus minahassae (clustertree)[6]
Ficus racemosa[5]
Ficus religiosa (peepul tree)[4]
Ficus semicordata[5]
Ficus virens[4]
Grewia sclerophylla[5]
Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia (moa tree)[4]
Mangifera indica (mango)[4]
Miliusa velutina[5]
Murraya koenigii (curryleaftree)[5]
Phoenix acaulis (Dwarf Date Palm)[5]
Syzygium cumini[5]
Ziziphus mauritiana (Indian jujube)[4]
Ziziphus nummularia (jujube)[4]
Ziziphus oenoplia[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acridotheres ginginianus (Bank Myna)2
Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)3
Anthracoceros coronatus (Malabar Pied Hornbill)2
Axis axis (chital)5
Axis porcinus (hog deer)2
Boselaphus tragocamelus (nilgai)5
Corvus macrorhynchos (Large-billed Crow)2
Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)5
Dendrocitta vagabunda (Rufous Treepie)2
Ducula bicolor (Pied Imperial Pigeon)2
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)3
Hoolock hoolock hoolock (hoolock gibbon)3
Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)2
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)2
Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque)2
Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey)3
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)3
Megalaima viridis (White-cheeked Barbet)3
Megalaima zeylanica (Brown-headed Barbet)4
Monticola solitarius (Blue Rock Thrush)2
Ocyceros birostris (Indian Grey Hornbill)2
Oriolus oriolus (Eurasian Golden Oriole)2
Oriolus xanthornus (Black-hooded Oriole)2
Pastor roseus (Rosy Starling)2
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)2
Pteropus alecto (black flying fox)2
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)5
Pycnonotus aurigaster (Sooty-headed Bulbul)2
Pycnonotus cafer (Red-vented Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus luteolus (White-browed Bulbul)3
Pygathrix nemaeus (Douc langur)2
Rhinoceros unicornis (Indian rhinoceros)2
Rousettus leschenaultii (Leschenault's rousette)4
Semnopithecus entellus (Hanuman langur)4
Sus scrofa (wild boar)2
Trachypithecus pileatus (capped leaf monkey)2
Treron phoenicopterus (Yellow-footed Green Pigeon)2
Turdoides striata (Bengal jungle babbler)2
Vulpes bengalensis (Bengal Fox)3

Predators

Panthera pardus (Leopard)[5]
Panthera tigris (Tiger)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ancylostoma caninum[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Agra Bear Rescue Facility
Akron Zoological Park
 inornatus
Bannerghatta Biological Park
Bhagwan Birsa Munda Biological Park
Bharat Ratna Pandit Gobind Ballabh
Capron Park Zoo
 inornatus
Chicago Zoological Park
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
 inornatus
Dept. of National Zoological Gardens
Dr. Shivarama Karanth Pilikula Biol.Pk
Indira Gandhi Zoo & Deer Park
International Animal Exchange, Inc.
Kanpur Zoological Park
Lee Richardson Zoo
Little Rock Zoological Gardens
Miami Metrozoo
Montgomery Zooinornatus
Moscow Zoological Parkinornatus
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Councilursinus
Ragunan Zoological Park
Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park
Rolling Hills Wildlife Adventureinornatus
Safaripark Beekse Bergenursinus
Saint Louis Zoological Park
Sakkarbaugh Zoo, Junagadh
San Diego Zooinornatus
Sanjay Gandhi Biological Park
Singapore Zoological Gardensursinus
Smithsonian National Zoological Park
 inornatus
Sri Chamarajendra Zoo (Mysore Zoo)
Sunset Zoo
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo
 inornatus
Tata Steel Zoological Park
Tautphaus Park Zoo
The Philadelphia Zooinornatus
Toledo Zoological Gardensinornatus
Van Vihar National Park
Whipsnade Wild Animal Parkinornatus
Woodland Park Zoological Gardens
Zoo Boise
Zoologischer Garten Leipzig
 ursinus

Range Map

Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
4Feeding ecology of sloth bears in a disturbed area in central India, H.S. Bargali, Naim Akhtar,and N.P.S. Chauhan, Ursus 15(2):212-217 (2004)
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access