Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Ursidae > Tremarctos > Tremarctos ornatus
 

Tremarctos ornatus (Spectacled Bear)

Wikipedia Abstract

The spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), also known as the Andean bear or Andean short-faced bear and locally as jukumari (Aymara), ukumari (Quechua) or ukuku, is the last remaining short-faced bear (subfamily Tremarctinae) and its closest relatives are the extinct Florida spectacled bear, and the giant short-faced bears of the Middle Pleistocene to Late Pleistocene age.
View Wikipedia Record: Tremarctos ornatus

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
15
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
63
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 29.84
EDGE Score: 4.82

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  240.86 lbs (109.25 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  320 grams
Diet [2]  Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  80 %
Diet - Plants [2]  20 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  7 months 18 days
Litter Size [1]  2
Maximum Longevity [1]  39 years
Nocturnal [3]  Yes
Weaning [1]  90 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Apure-Villavicencio dry forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Bolivian montane dry forests Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Bolivian Yungas Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Catatumbo moist forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cauca Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cauca Valley montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Central Andean wet puna Peru, Bolivia Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Cordillera Central páramo Ecuador, Peru Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Cordillera de Merida páramo Venezuela Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Cordillera Oriental montane forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Cordillera real montane forests Ecuador, Colombia, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Panamanian montane forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena Valley montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Marañón dry forests Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Napo moist forests Colombia, Venezuela, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern Andean páramo Ecuador, Colombia Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Northwestern Andean montane forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Patía Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Peruvian Yungas Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Andean Yungas Bolivia, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tumbes-Piura dry forests Ecuador, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Venezuelan Andes montane forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve VI 921676 Ecuador  
Cinturon Andino Cluster Biosphere Reserve 433176 Colombia  
La Reserva de la Planada   Colombia      
Madidi National Park II 3194501 Bolivia  
Otishi National Park 760925 Peru  
Reserva de Huascarán National Park II 844711 Ancash, Peru  
Reserva del Noroeste Biosphere Reserve 571807 Peru  
Reserva Nacional de Fauna Ulla Ulla National Fauna Reserve 559837 Bolivia  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Prey / Diet

Colicodendron scabridum[4]
Cordia fragrantissima[4]
Eriotheca discolor[4]
Schinus molle (false pepper)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Ara rubrogenys (Red-fronted Macaw)1
Eulidia yarrellii (Chilean Woodstar)1
Lycalopex culpaeus (Culpeo)1
Lycalopex sechurae (Sechuran Fox)1

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ctenocephalides felis felis[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)
Alexandria Zoological Park
Artis Zoo
Barranquilla Zoo
Binghamton Zoo at Ross Park
BREC's Baton Rouge Zoo
Buffalo Zoological Gardens
CERZA Centre d'Etude Rech Zool Augeron
Cheyenne Mtn Zoological Park
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
City of Belfast Zoo
Cleveland Metroparks Zoo
Connecticut's Beardsley Zoo
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
El Paso Zoo
Fundacao Parque Zoologico de Sao Paulo
Fundacion Zoológica del Ecuador
Fundacion Zoologica de Cali
Fundacion Zoologico Santacruz
Gladys Porter Zoo
Granby Zoo / Zoo de Granby
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
Jardin Zoologique de la Ville de Lyon
Johannesburg Zoological Gardens
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens
Moscow Zoological Park
Nagoya Higashiyama Zoo
North of England Zoological Society
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
Oglebay's Good Children's Zoo
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.
Parco Natura Viva
Parque Zoologico Huachipa
Parque Zoologico Jaime Duque - Bogota
Parque Zoologico Santa Fe
Phoenix Zoo
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium
Queens Zoo
Racine Zoological Gardens
Reid Park Zoo
Rolling Hills Wildlife Adventure
Rosamond Gifford Zoo at Burnet Park
Saint Louis Zoological Park
Salisbury Zoological Park
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquar
San Diego Zoo
San Francisco Zoological Gardens
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH
Smithsonian National Zoological Park
South Lakes Wild Animal Park
The Philadelphia Zoo
Thoiry Zoological Park
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnberg
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbH
Tierwelt Herberstein
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museum
Wilhelma Zoo
Yokohama Zool. Gardens
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo de Doue-la-Fontaine
Zoo de Pont-Scorff
Zoo Dortmund
Zoo of Antwerp
Zoo Zürich
Zoologischer Garten Leipzig

Range Map

Patfa Valley dry forests; South America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
4Ecology, Distribution, and Food Habits of Spectacled Bears, Tremarctos ornatus, in Peru, Bernard Peyton, Journal of Mammalogy, Vol. 61, No. 4, (Nov., 1980), pp. 639-652
5International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access