Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Canidae > Vulpes > Vulpes bengalensis
 

Vulpes bengalensis (Bengal Fox)

Synonyms: Canis bengalensis

Wikipedia Abstract

The Bengal fox (Vulpes bengalensis), also known as the Indian fox, is a fox endemic to the Indian subcontinent and is found from the Himalayan foothills and Terai of Nepal through southern India and from southern and eastern Pakistan to eastern India and southeastern Bangladesh.
View Wikipedia Record: Vulpes bengalensis

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
2
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
17
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 5.45
EDGE Score: 1.86

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  5.24 lbs (2.38 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  59 grams
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates), Carnivore (Vertebrates), Frugivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  20 %
Diet - Invertibrates [2]  20 %
Diet - Vertibrates [2]  60 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  50 days
Litter Size [1]  4
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [3]  8 years
Nocturnal [4]  Yes

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Pakistan, Afghanistan Palearctic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chhota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Deccan thorn scrub forests India, Sri Lanka Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
East Deccan dry-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Goadavari-Krishna mangroves India Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Himalayan subtropical pine forests India, Bhutan, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests
Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Mangroves
Indus Valley desert Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Malabar Coast moist forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
North Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northern dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Northwestern thorn scrub forests India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Orissa semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Rann of Kutch seasonal salt marsh India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
South Western Ghats montane rain forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Thar desert India, Pakistan Indo-Malayan Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bandhavgarh National Park II 89210 Madhya Pradesh, India  
Indravati Tiger Reserve   Chhattishgarh, India      
Kanha Tiger Reserve National Park II 223971 Madhya Pradesh, India
Lal Suhanra National Park V 17972 Pakistan  
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Namdapha National Park II   Arunachal Pradesh, India
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve 1364022 India  
Palamau Tiger Reserve National Park II 329056 Bihar, India
Rajaji National Park II 196637 Uttaranchal, India  
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Sanjay Gandhi National Park II 439343 Maharashtra, India
Sunderban National Park 261613 India  
Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary IV 51099 Maharashtra, India  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka India, Sri Lanka No

Prey / Diet

Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)[3]
Azadirachta indica (neem)[3]
Calotes versicolor farooqi (Eastern Garden Lizard, Oriental Garden Lizard)[5]
Cicer arietinum (Chickpea)[3]
Echis carinatus (Saw-scaled Viper)[5]
Eremopterix griseus (Ashy-crowned finch lark)[3]
Ficus benghalensis (Indian banyan)[3]
Francolinus pondicerianus (Grey Francolin)[3]
Golunda ellioti (Indian bush rat)[5]
Lepus nigricollis (Indian Hare)[5]
Mangifera indica (mango)[3]
Millardia meltada (soft-furred rat)[3]
Mus booduga (little Indian field mouse)[3]
Paraechinus nudiventris (Bare-bellied Hedgehog)[3]
Ptyas mucosa (Dhaman, Oriental Ratsnake)[3]
Sitana ponticeriana (Fan Throated Lizard)[5]
Tatera indica (Indian gerbil)[5]
Ziziphus mauritiana (Indian jujube)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acridotheres fuscus (Jungle Myna)1
Acridotheres ginginianus (Bank Myna)1
Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)3
Anthracoceros coronatus (Malabar Pied Hornbill)1
Athene brama (Spotted Owlet)2
Athene noctua (Little Owl)1
Axis axis (chital)2
Axis porcinus (hog deer)1
Boselaphus tragocamelus (nilgai)2
Bubo bubo bengalensis (Rock Eagle-owl)6
Callosobruchus chinensis1
Canis aureus (Golden Jackal)3
Caracal caracal (Caracal)2
Carpodacus rodochroa (Pink-browed Rosefinch)1
Coracina novaehollandiae (Black-faced Cuckooshrike)1
Corvus macrorhynchos (Large-billed Crow)1
Corvus splendens (House Crow)1
Cuculus varius (common hawk-cuckoo)1
Cuon alpinus (Dhole)2
Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)2
Dendrocitta vagabunda (Rufous Treepie)1
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)1
Felis chaus (Jungle Cat)3
Gracupica contra (Pied Myna)1
Hoolock hoolock hoolock (hoolock gibbon)1
Hypsipetes leucocephalus (Black Bulbul)1
Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey)1
Macaca radiata (bonnet macaque)2
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)1
Megalaima zeylanica (Brown-headed Barbet)1
Melursus ursinus (Sloth Bear)3
Monticola solitarius (Blue Rock Thrush)1
Ocyceros birostris (Indian Grey Hornbill)1
Ocyceros griseus (Malabar Grey Hornbill)1
Oriolus oriolus (Eurasian Golden Oriole)1
Oriolus xanthornus (Black-hooded Oriole)1
Pastor roseus (Rosy Starling)1
Psittacula krameri (Rose-ringed Parakeet)1
Psittacula longicauda (Long-tailed Parakeet)1
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)3
Pteropus hypomelanus (variable flying fox)1
Pteropus vampyrus (large flying fox)1
Pycnonotus aurigaster (Sooty-headed Bulbul)1
Pycnonotus cafer (Red-vented Bulbul)1
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered Bulbul)1
Pycnonotus luteolus (White-browed Bulbul)1
Pycnonotus xantholaemus (Yellow-throated Bulbul)1
Rousettus leschenaultii (Leschenault's rousette)3
Rucervus duvaucelii (barasingha)1
Semnopithecus entellus (Hanuman langur)1
Sturnia malabarica (Chestnut-tailed Starling)1
Sturnia pagodarum (Brahminy Starling)1
Sus scrofa (wild boar)1
Trachypithecus pileatus (capped leaf monkey)1
Treron phoenicopterus (Yellow-footed Green Pigeon)1
Turdoides striata (Bengal jungle babbler)1
Varanus bengalensis (Bengal Monitor)2
Viverricula indica (Small Indian Civet)1
Zabrotes subfasciatus1

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ctenocephalides orientis[6]
Dipylidium otocyonis <Unverified Name>[7]
Dirofilaria immitis (Heartworm)[7]
Dirofilaria repens <Unverified Name>[7]
Haplorchis taichui[7]
Joyeuxiella vulpusi <Unverified Name>[7]
Linognathus bhatii[8]
Linognathus vulpis[8]
Mesocestoides lineatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Toxocara canis[7]
Uncinaria stenocephala (Northern hookworm)[7]
Xenopsylla astia[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Bhagwan Birsa Munda Biological Park
Sakkarbaugh Zoo, Junagadh

Range Map

Southern Asia;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
38.2 Indian fox, Vulpes bengalensis, A.J.T. Johnsingh and Y.V. Jhala, Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 430 pp.
4Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org
5DIETARY NICHE SEPARATION BETWEEN SYMPATRIC FREE-RANGING DOMESTIC DOGS AND INDIAN FOXES IN CENTRAL INDIA, ABI TAMIM VANAK AND MATTHEW E. GOMPPER, Journal of Mammalogy, 90(5):1058–1065, 2009
6International Flea Database
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access