Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Carnivora > Hyaenidae > Crocuta > Crocuta crocuta
 

Crocuta crocuta (Spotted Hyena)

Wikipedia Abstract

The spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), also known as the laughing hyena or tiger wolf, is a species of hyena native to Sub-Saharan Africa. It is listed as Least Concern by the IUCN on account of its widespread range and large numbers estimated between 27,000 and 47,000 individuals. The species is however experiencing declines outside of protected areas due to habitat loss and poaching.
View Wikipedia Record: Crocuta crocuta

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
10
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
36
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 21.17
EDGE Score: 3.1

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  138.89 lbs (63.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  3.06 lbs (1.39 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  3 years
Male Maturity [1]  1 year 9 months
Diet [2]  Carnivore
Gestation [1]  3 months 20 days
Litter Size [1]  2
Litters / Year [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  41 years
Speed [3]  31.00 MPH (13.86 m/s)
Weaning [1]  8 months 25 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Angolan montane forest-grassland mosaic Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Angolan Mopane woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Angolan Scarp savanna and woodlands Angola Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
East African halophytics Tanzania Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
East Saharan montane xeric woodlands Chad, Sudan Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Eastern Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Mozambique Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands Ethiopia, Eritrea Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Hobyo grasslands and shrublands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Inner Niger Delta flooded savanna Mali Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Kalahari xeric savanna Botswana, Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Lake Chad flooded savanna Nigeria, Chad, Niger Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Mandara Plateau mosaic Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Maputaland coastal forest mosaic Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Masai xeric grasslands and shrublands Kenya Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Namibian savanna woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Serengeti volcanic grasslands Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Somali montane xeric woodlands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Southern Africa bushveld Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Gabon, Congo, Democratic Rep of the Congo, Angola Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Western Zambezian grasslands Angola, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian Cryptosepalum dry forests Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Zambezian flooded grasslands Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Amboseli National Park National Reserve II 99624 Kenya
Bamingui-Bangoran Conservation Area National Park II 2783298 Central African Republic  
Delta du Saloum National Park II 179029 Senegal  
Dinder National Park II 2088300 Sudan  
Etosha National Park II 5699141 Namibia  
Foret Classee de la Mare Aux Hippopotames Bird Reserve IV 37906 Burkina Faso  
Garamba National Park II 1237963 Democratic Republic of the Congo  
Gombe National Park II 8799 Tanzania
Itala Game Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve II 72822 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Kahuzi-Biéga National Park II 1647768 Democratic Republic of the Congo  
Kalahari Gemsbok National Park II 2382284 Northern Cape, South Africa
Kibale National Park II 196202 Uganda
Kora National Park II 409762 Kenya
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve   Mpumalanga, South Africa  
Lake Manyara National Park II 78767 Tanzania  
Lake Nakuru National Park II 46472 Kenya  
Mahale Mountains National Park II 398414 Tanzania
Mamili National Park II 83904 Namibia  
Mkhaya Game Reserve   Swaziland  
Mlawula Nature Reserve IV 46444 Swaziland  
Mount Kenya Biosphere Reserve II 146694 Kenya
Namib-Naukluft National Park II 12585619 Namibia  
Nechisar National Park II 256137 Ethiopia  
Parc National d'Odzala National Park II 3423581 Congo  
Parc National de la Benoue National Park II 414262 Cameroon  
Parc National de la Comoe National Park II 2902593 Côte d'Ivoire  
Parc National des Volcans National Park II 45380 Rwanda  
Parc National du Niokolo-Koba National Park II 2046878 Senegal  
Queen Elizabeth National Park II 522052 Uganda
Radom National Park II   Sudan  
Reserve de la Biosphere de la Pendjari Biosphere Reserve 217453 Benin  
Serengeti-Ngorongoro Biosphere Reserve 5696026 Tanzania  
Skeleton Coast Game Park II 4168395 Namibia  
South Luangwa National Park II 2220358 Zambia  
Tsavo East National Park II 3232255 Kenya

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Eastern Afromontane Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No

Emblem of

Gambia

Prey / Diet

Addax nasomaculatus (addax)[4]
Antidorcas marsupialis (springbok)[5]
Ardeotis kori (Kori Bustard)[6]
Cryptomys damarensis (Damaraland mole-rat)[7]
Equus grevyi (Grevy's zebra)[8]
Equus zebra (mountain zebra)[9]
Madoqua guentheri (Günther's dik-dik)[10]
Orycteropus afer (Aardvark)[11]
Oryx gazella (gemsbok)[12]
Otocyon megalotis (Bat-eared Fox)[13]
Taurotragus oryx (eland)[14]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acinonyx jubatus (Cheetah)8
Aquila rapax (Tawny Eagle)2
Aquila verreauxii (Verreaux's Eagle)3
Asio capensis (Marsh Owl)2
Bubo africanus (Spotted Eagle-Owl)1
Bubo lacteus (Verreaux's Eagle-Owl)1
Canis mesomelas (Black-backed Jackal)5
Caracal caracal (Caracal)5
Felis silvestris (Wildcat)1
Galerella sanguinea (Slender Mongoose)1
Hyaena brunnea (Brown Hyena)1
Leptailurus serval (Serval)2
Lycaon pictus (African wild dog)7
Necrosyrtes monachus (Hooded Vulture)1
Panthera leo (Lion)8
Panthera pardus (Leopard)9
Polemaetus bellicosus (Martial Eagle)4
Pseudaspis cana (Mole Snake)1
Python sebae (African Rock Python)3
Varanus exanthematicus (Savannah Monitor)1

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Ancylostoma brasiliense[15]
Ancylostoma caninum[15]
Ancylostoma duodenale <Unverified Name>[15]
Ctenocephalides felis strongylus[16]
Dipetalonema dracunculoides <Unverified Name>[15]
Diphyllobothrium theileri <Unverified Name>[15]
Echidnophaga larina[16]
Echinococcus granulosus[15]
Pulex irritans (human flea)[16]
Taenia crocutae <Unverified Name>[15]
Taenia dinniki <Unverified Name>[15]
Taenia hyaenae <Unverified Name>[15]
Taenia olngojinei <Unverified Name>[15]
Toxocara canis[15]
Trichinella nelsoni <Unverified Name>[15]
Trichinella spiralis (pork worm)[15]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)
Al Ain Zoo
Albuquerque Biological Park
America's Teaching Zoo
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Buffalo Zoological Gardens
Chiangmai Zoological Garden
Denver Zoological Gardens
Dierenpark Amersfoort
Dusit (Bangkok) Zoological Park
Emerald Safari Resort
Fort Wayne Children's Zoo
Giza Zoological Garden
Honolulu Zoo
International Animal Exchange, Inc.
Izmir Zoo / Izmir Dogal Yasam Parki
Jászberény Zool.& Botanical Garden
Jyllands Park Zoo
Khao Kheow Open Zoo
Miami Metrozoo
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
Monarto Zoological Park
Nakhon Ratchasima Zool. Park
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africa
Oakland Zoo
Oasys Parque del Desierto de Tabernas
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.
Out of Africa Wildlife Park
Parc Safari / F.A.P.S.
Parc Zoologique d'Amneville
Parque Zoologico Nacional, ZOODOM
Perth Zoological Gardens
Riverbanks Zoo and Garden
Rotterdam Zoo
Sacramento Zoo
Safari de Peaugres
Safaripark Beekse Bergen
Saint Louis Zoological Park
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquar
San Diego Zoo
Seneca Park Zoo
Singapore Zoological Gardens
Szeged Zoo
Tbilisi Zoo
The Naples Zoo
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbH
Toronto Zoo
Valencia Bioparc, Rainforest S.A.
Wild Animal Park Mechelen Planckendael
Woodland Park Zoological Gardens
Zoo de Doue-la-Fontaine
Zoo Dvur Kralove, a.s.
Zoo Osnabrück
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoologicka Zahrada Kosice
Zoologischer Garten Leipzig

Range Map

Africa; Tsavo National Park;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Wozencraft W.C., 2007-08-15, in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3Wikipedia licensed under a Creative Commons License 4Addax nasomaculatus, Paul R. Krausman and Anne L. Casey, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 807, pp. 1-4 (2007) 5Antidorcas marsupialis, James W. Cain III, Paul R. Krausman, and Heather L. Germaine, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 753, pp. 1–7 (2004) 6Kori Bustard Species Survival Plan (Ardeotis kori) Husbandry Manual, Sara Hallager, Jeanette Boylan, September 2004 7Cryptomys damarensis, Nigel C. Bennett and Jennifer U. M. Jarvis, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 756, pp. 1–5 (2004) 8Equus grevyi, C. S. Churcher, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 453, pp. 1-9 (1993) 9Equus zebra, B. L. Penzhorn, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 314, pp. 1-7 (1988) 10Madoqua guentheri, Steven C. Kingswood and Arlene T. Kumamoto, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 539, pp. 1-10 (1996) 11Orycteropus afer, Jeheskel Shoshani, Corey A. Goldman, and J. G. M. Thewissen, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 300, pp. 1-8 (1988) 12The Namib: Detritus and Fog Dependence Scott Christy March 1st, 2006 136.6 Bat-eared fox, Otocyon megalotis, J.A.J. Nel and B. Maas, Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and Macdonald, D.W. (eds). 2004. Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. x + 430 pp. 14Taurotragus oryx, Lindsay A. Pappas, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 689, pp. 1–5 (2002) 15Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 16International Flea Database
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), Conservation International & NatureServe.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011 Out of Africa Wildlife Park