Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Perissodactyla > Tapiridae > Tapirus > Tapirus terrestris
 

Tapirus terrestris (South American tapir)

Synonyms: Hippopotamus terrestris

Wikipedia Abstract

The South American tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Brazilian tapir (from the Tupi tapi'ira), lowland tapir or (in Portuguese) anta, is one of five species in the tapir family, along with the Mountain tapir, the Malayan tapir, the Baird's tapir, and the kabomani tapir. It is the second-largest land mammal in South America, after the Baird's tapir.
View Wikipedia Record: Tapirus terrestris

Infraspecies

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
11
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
59
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 23.71
EDGE Score: 4.59

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  551.16 lbs (250.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  13.23 lbs (6.00 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  3 years
Male Maturity [1]  3 years
Gestation [1]  1 year 1 month
Litter Size [1]  1
Maximum Longevity [1]  38 years
Weaning [1]  9 months 19 days

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Alta Paraná Atlantic forests Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Amazon-Orinoco-Southern Caribbean mangroves Brazil, Columbia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela Neotropic Mangroves  
Apure-Villavicencio dry forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Araucaria moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Araya and Paria xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Atlantic Coast restingas Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Atlantic dry forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Bahia coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Bahia interior forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Beni savanna Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Bolivian montane dry forests Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Bolivian Yungas Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Caatinga Brazil Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Caatinga Enclaves moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Campos Rupestres montane savanna Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Caqueta moist forests Brazil, Columbia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Catatumbo moist forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cauca Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Cauca Valley montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cerrado Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Chiquitano dry forests Bolivia, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Chocó-Darién moist forests Colombia, Panama Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cordillera La Costa montane forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Cordillera Oriental montane forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Dry Chaco Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Eastern Cordillera real montane forests Ecuador, Colombia, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Guianan Freshwater swamp forests Suriname, Guyana, French Guiana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan Highlands moist forests Venezuela, Brazil, Guyana, Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan moist forests Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Guianan piedmont and lowland moist forests Brazil, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Guianan savanna Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Gurupa varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
High Monte Argentina Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands  
Humid Chaco Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Iquitos varzea Brazil, Peru, Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Japurá-Solimoes-Negro moist forests Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Juruá-Purus moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
La Costa xeric shrublands Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Lara-Falcón dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Llanos Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Madeira-Tapajós moist forests Brazil, Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena Valley montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Magdalena-Urabá moist forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Marañón dry forests Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Maracaibo dry forests Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Marajó varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Maranhao Babatu forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Mato Grosso seasonal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Monte Alegre varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Napo moist forests Colombia, Venezuela, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Negro-Branco moist forests Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northeastern Brazil restingas Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Northwestern Andean montane forests Colombia, Ecuador Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Orinoco Delta swamp forests Venezuela, Guyana Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Orinoco wetlands Venezuela Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Pantanal Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Pantepuis Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Paraguana xeric scrub Venezuela Neotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Paraná flooded savanna Argentina Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Pernambuco coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Pernambuco interior forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Peruvian Yungas Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Purus varzea Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Purus-Madeira moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Rio Negro campinarana Brazil, Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Santa Marta montane forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Serra do Mar coastal forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests  
Sinú Valley dry forests Colombia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Solimões-Japurá moist forest Brazil, Colombia, Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Andean steppe Argentina, Chile Neotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Southern Andean Yungas Bolivia, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Southern Atlantic mangroves Brazil Neotropic Mangroves  
Southern Cone Mesopotamian savanna Argentina Neotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Southwest Amazon moist forests Peru, Brazil, Bolivia Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tapajós-Xingu moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Tocantins/Pindare moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Uatuma-Trombetas moist forests Brazil, Guyana, Suriname Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Ucayali moist forests Peru Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Uruguayan savanna Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Venezuelan Andes montane forests Colombia, Venezuela Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Xingu-Tocantins-Araguaia moist forests Brazil Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bahuaja-Sonene National Park II 2716956 Madre de Dios (Puerto Maldonado), Peru  
Bosque Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve V 691895 Paraguay  
Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve VI 921676 Ecuador  
Defensores del Chaco National Park II 1792493 Paraguay  
El Rey National Park II 110298 Salta, Argentina
El Tuparro Natural National Park II 1366853 Colombia  
Estacion Biologica Beni Biosphere Reserve VI 335178 Bolivia  
Estancia Sombrero Private Reserve   Paraguay      
Itabó Biological Reserve IV 34092 Paraguay  
Madidi National Park II 3194501 Bolivia  
Manú National Park II 4213523 Cusco, Peru  
Maracá Ecological Reserve Ia 257554 Roraima, Brazil  
Morombi Private Reserve Natural Private Reserve IV 68152 Paraguay  
Noel Kempff Mercado National Park II 4006523 Bolivia  
Otishi National Park 760925 Peru  
Pantanal National Park II 336935 Mato Grosso, Brazil  
Parque Nacional Canaima National Park II 7542183 Venezuela  
Parque Nacional Iguazú National Park II 115949 Argentina  
Parque Nacional Serranía San Luis National Park II 29816 Paraguay  
Río Negro National Park II 73775 Paraguay  
Río Pilcomayo National Park II 123699 Formosa, Argentina
Reserva Cuzco Amazonico   Peru      
Reserva de la Biosfera de la Amistad Biosphere Reserve II 493313 Costa Rica  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Yasuni Biosphere Reserve 4156313 Ecuador  
Reserva de Vida Silvestre Tahuamanu   Bolivia      
Reserve de Biosphere Cerrado Biosphere Reserve II 1812 Parana, Brazil  
San Rafael, Reserva de Recursos Manejados Managed Resource Reserve VI 165840 Paraguay  
Sierra del Divisor Reserve Zone 3652986 Peru      
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (incl. Tayrona NP) National Park II 1031303 Colombia  
Teniente Enciso National Park II 102327 Paraguay  
Tinfunqué National Park 607935 Paraguay  

Ecosystems

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Atlantic Forest Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay No
Cerrado Brazil No
Tropical Andes Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela No
Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru No

Prey / Diet

Anacardium giganteum (Wild Cashew)[2]
Anomospermum reticulatum subsp. reticulatum[2]
Attalea maripa[3]
Couma macrocarpa[2]
Dacryodes peruviana[2]
Dipteryx odorata (Dutch Tonka Bean)[2]
Dipteryx punctata (Tonka Bean)[2]
Euterpe edulis[4]
Ficus insipida[5]
Ficus sphenophylla[5]
Gustavia coriacea[2]
Helicostylis tomentosa[2]
Inga oerstediana (Guavo)[2]
Mauritia flexuosa (muriti)[6]
Micropholis egensis[2]
Micropholis melinoniana[2]
Oenocarpus bacaba[2]
Oenocarpus bataua var. bataua[2]
Pourouma bicolor[2]
Pourouma guianensis[2]
Protium crenatum[2]
Pseudolmedia laevis[2]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aburria aburri (Wattled Guan)1
Aburria cumanensis (Blue-throated Piping-guan)1
Aburria jacutinga (Black-fronted piping guan)1
Alouatta palliata (mantled howler monkey)1
Alouatta seniculus (red howler monkey)2
Amazona aestiva (Turquoise-fronted Amazon)1
Amazona albifrons (White-fronted Parrot)1
Amazona farinosa (Mealy Parrot)1
Amazona finschi (Lilac-crowned Parrot)1
Amazona vinacea (Vinaceous-breasted Amazon)1
Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (Hyacinth Macaw)1
Ara ararauna (Blue-and-yellow Macaw)1
Ara chloropterus (Red-and-green Macaw)3
Ara macao (Scarlet Macaw)2
Artibeus jamaicensis (Jamaican fruit-eating bat)2
Artibeus lituratus (great fruit-eating bat)2
Artibeus obscurus (dark fruit-eating bat)1
Ateles belzebuth (white-bellied spider monkey)2
Ateles chamek (Chamek spider monkey)3
Ateles geoffroyi (Central American spider monkey)1
Baillonius bailloni (saffron toucanet)1
Bassaricyon gabbii (Olingo)2
Bombus brevivillus1
Bombus transversalis1
Brotogeris jugularis (Orange-chinned Parakeet)1
Brotogeris tirica (Plain Parakeet)1
Callithrix penicillata (black-pencilled marmoset)1
Caracara plancus (Southern Crested Caracara)1
Carollia brevicauda (silky short-tailed bat)1
Carpornis cucullata (Hooded Berryeater)1
Carpornis melanocephala (Black-headed Berryeater)1
Cebus albifrons (white-fronted capuchin)1
Cebus capucinus (white-faced capuchin)1
Celeus flavescens (Blond-crested Woodpecker)1
Cerdocyon thous (Crab-eating Fox)1
Chiroderma villosum (hairy big-eyed bat)1
Choloepus hoffmanni (Hoffmann's Two-toed Sloth)1
Chrysocyon brachyurus (Maned Wolf)1
Cyanocorax cristatellus (Curl-crested Jay)1
Dermanura phaeotis (pygmy fruit-eating bat)1
Eulaema meriana1
Eulaema nigrita1
Euryoryzomys russatus (intermediate rice rat)1
Gnorimopsar chopi (Chopi Blackbird)1
Guaruba guarouba (Golden Parakeet)1
Lagothrix lagothricha (Humboldt's woolly monkey)1
Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin)2
Lipaugus lanioides (Cinnamon-vented Piha)1
Mitu salvini (Salvin's Curassow)1
Myiodynastes maculatus (Streaked Flycatcher)1
Nasua narica (White-nosed Coati)1
Nasua nasua (South American Coati)3
Orthogonys chloricterus (Olive-green Tanager)1
Orthopsittaca manilata (Red-bellied Macaw)1
Oxyruncus cristatus (Sharpbill)1
Pecari tajacu (collared peccary)2
Penelope obscura (Dusky-legged Guan)1
Penelope superciliaris (Rusty-margined Guan)1
Pionus maximiliani (Scaly-headed Parrot)1
Pionus menstruus (Blue-headed Parrot)1
Pithecia albicans (buffy saki)2
Platyrrhinus helleri (Heller's broad-nosed bat)1
Potos flavus (Kinkajou)2
Procnias nudicollis (Bare-throated Bellbird)1
Pyroderus scutatus (Red-ruffed Fruitcrow)1
Pyrrhura frontalis (Reddish-bellied Parakeet)2
Ramphastos dicolorus (Green-billed Toucan)1
Ramphastos tucanus (White-throated Toucan)1
Ramphastos vitellinus (Channel-billed Toucan)1
Saimiri sciureus (South American squirrel monkey)2
Sapajus apella (brown capuchin)4
Schistochlamys melanopis (Black-faced Tanager)1
Sciurus variegatoides (variegated squirrel)1
Selenidera maculirostris (Spot-billed Toucanet)1
Steatornis caripensis (Oilbird)2
Tapirella bairdii (Baird's tapir)1
Tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary)2
Thraupis palmarum (Palm Tanager)1
Tityra cayana (Black-tailed Tityra)1
Triclaria malachitacea (Blue-bellied Parrot)1
Trogon viridis (White-tailed Trogon)1
Turdus albicollis (White-necked Thrush)1
Turdus flavipes (Yellow-legged Thrush)1
Uroderma bilobatum (tent-making bat)1
Vampyriscus nymphaea (striped yellow-eared bat)1
Vampyrodes caraccioli (great stripe-faced bat)1

Predators

Eunectes murinus (Anaconda, Green Anaconda)[3]
Panthera onca (Jaguar)[3]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Haemaphysalis juxtakochi[7]
Kiluluma longipene <Unverified Name>[8]
Monodontus nefastus <Unverified Name>[8]
Neomurshidia monosticha <Unverified Name>[8]
Physocephalus meridionalis <Unverified Name>[8]
Physocephalus nitidulans <Unverified Name>[8]
Tapironema coronatum <Unverified Name>[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aalborg Zoo
Adelaide Zoo
African Safari
 terrestris
Alexandria Zoological Park
Amazon World
Aqua Zoo Friesland
Audubon Zoo
Barranquilla Zoo
Blackpool Zoo
Bristol Zoo Gardens
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Burger's Zoo
Center for Conserv. of Trop. Ungulates
CERZA Centre d'Etude Rech Zool Augeron
Chicago Zoological Park
Cologne Zoo
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardens
Curraghs Wildlife Park
Dallas Zoo
Detroit Zoological Society
Drayton Manor Park Zoo
Dudley Zoological Gardens
Espace Zoologique la Boissiere du Dore
Exmoor Zoological Park
Flamingo Land LTD
Folly Farm Leisure Ltd
Fota Wildlife Park
Fundacao Parque Zoologico de Sao Paulo
Fundacao Zoo-Botan. de Belo Horizonte
Fundacion Zoológica del Ecuador
Fundacion Zoologica de Cali
Fundacion Zoologico Santacruz
GaiaPark, Kerkrade Zoo
Galloway Wildlife Conservation Park
Hai Park Kiriat Motzkin
 terrestris
Hamilton Zoo
Hope Zoo (Nature Preservation Found.)
 terrestris
Houston Zoo, Inc.
Howletts Wild Animal Park
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoo
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
John Ball Zoological Garden
Jyllands Park Zoo
Kaliningrad Zoo
Kittenberger Zoo
Kolmardens Djurpark AB
Kristiansand Dyrepark ASA
Le Pal, Parc Animalier
Leningrad Zoo - St. Petersburg
Lietuvos Zoologijos Sodas
Linton Zoological Gardens
Lion Country Safari Inc - Florida
Longleat Safari Park
Manor House Wildlife Park
Marwell Wildlife
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodz
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Wybrzeza
Mogo Zoo P/L
Monde Sauvage Safari SPRL
Moscow Zoological Park
Municipal Independent Org. Roev Ruchei
Nagoya Higashiyama Zoo
Nagyerdei Kultúrpark KHT.
Newquay Zoo (Cornwall Animal World)
Noah's Ark Zoo Farm
North of England Zoological Society
Novosibirsk Zoological Park
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
Odense Zoologiske Have
Ogrod Zoologiczny im. Stefana Milera
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Opolu, Opole
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniu
Paignton Zoo Environmental Park
Paradise Wildlife Park
Parc de Lunaret
Parc Paradisio S.A.
Parc Zoologic de Barcelona
Parc Zoologique d'Amiens
Parc Zoologique d'Amneville
Parc Zoologique de la Barben
Parc Zoologique de La Palmyre
Parc Zoologique de Lille
 terrestris
Parco Zoo Punta Verde
Park i Ogrod Zoologiczny w Krakowie
Parken Zoo i Eskilstuna AB
Parque De Animales Silvestres Temaikèn
Parque Zoologico Huachipa
Parque Zoologico Jaime Duque - Bogota
Parque Zoologico Santa Fe
 terrestris
Planete Sauvage
Randers Regnskov
Reaseheath College Animal Centre
 terrestris
Reserve Zoologique de Calviac
Riga Zoo
Rome Zoo-Fondazione Bioparco di Roma
Safari de Peaugres
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH
Seoul Zoo
Silesian Zoological Garden
Singapore Zoological Gardensterrestris
South Lakes Wild Animal Park
Szeged Zoo
Taronga Zoo
Tbilisi Zoo
The Tisch Family Zoological Gardens
 terrestris
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnberg
Tierpark Hagenbeck GmbH
Tierwelt Herberstein
Touroparc
Tropiquaria Wildlife Park
Twycross Zoo
Ueno Zoological Gardens
Usti nad Labem Zoo
Western Plains Zoo
Wildlife World Zoo
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC
Xantus János Állatkert Kht.
Yokohama Zool. Gardens
Zagreb Zoo / Zooloski vrt Zagreb
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo de Jurques
Zoo de La Fleche
Zoo des Sables d'Olonne
Zoo Dortmund
Zoo Duisburg AG
Zoo Krefeld GmbH
Zoo Osnabrück
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoo Santo Inácio Vila Nova de Gaia
Zoo Zürich
Zoobotanico de Jerez
Zool.Nacional Parque Metro De Santiago
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Gan
Zoological Garden Prague
Zoological Society of Ireland-Dublin
Zoological Society of Trinidad &Tobago
Zoologicka Garden & Chateau Zlin-Lesna
Zoologicka Zahrada Jihlava
Zoologicka Zahrada Mesta Brna
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburg
Zoologischer Garten Saarbruecken

Range Map

South America;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Diet of the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) in the Tabaro River valley, southern Venezuela, Leonardo A. Salas and Todd K. Fuller, Can. J. Zool. 74: 1444-1451 (1996) 3Animals of the Rainforest 4FRUITING PHENOLOGY AND FRUGIVORY ON THE PALM EUTERPE EDULIS IN A LOWLAND ATLANTIC FOREST IN BRAZIL, Mauro Galetti, Valesca B. Zipparro & Patricia C. Morellato, ECOTROPICA 5: 115-122, 1999 5"Fig-eating by vertebrate frugivores: a global review", MIKE SHANAHAN, SAMSON SO, STEPHEN G. COMPTON and RICHARD CORLETT, Biol. Rev. (2001), 76, pp. 529–572 6Stay below water! - A Strategy to avoid Seed Predators - Seed Survival and Germination of Mauritia flexuosa in Southeastern Peru, Björn Johansson, Master Thesis, Linköpings universitet, 2009 7Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2. 8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access