Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Perissodactyla > Rhinocerotidae > Ceratotherium > Ceratotherium simum

Ceratotherium simum (white rhinoceros)

Synonyms: Ceratotherium simum simum; Rhinoceros burchellii; Rhinoceros camus; Rhinoceros simus

Wikipedia Abstract

The white rhinoceros or square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is the largest extant species of rhinoceros. It has a wide mouth used for grazing and is the most social of all rhino species. The white rhinoceros is considered to consist of two subspecies: the southern white rhinoceros, with an estimated 20,000 wild-living animals as of 2015, and the much rarer northern white rhinoceros. The northern subspecies has very few remaining, with only three confirmed individuals left (two females Fatu, 15 and Najin, 25 and one male Sudan, 42), all in captivity.
View Wikipedia Record: Ceratotherium simum

EDGE Analysis

Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 27.18
EDGE Score: 4.03


Adult Weight [1]  2.40 tons (2,175.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  115.74 lbs (52.50 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  4 years 6 months
Male Maturity [1]  4 years 6 months
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Diet - Plants [2]  100 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  1 year 5 months
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  0
Maximum Longevity [1]  45 years
Weaning [1]  1 year


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Highveld grasslands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Kalahari xeric savanna Botswana, Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Kaokoveld desert Namibia, Angola Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Lake Chad flooded savanna Nigeria, Chad, Niger Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Nama Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Namibian savanna woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Africa bushveld Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Zambezian halophytics Mozambique, Botswana Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Delta du Saloum National Park II 179029 Senegal  
Garamba National Park II 1237963 Democratic Republic of the Congo  
Golden Gate Highlands National Park II 28689 Free State, South Africa
Itala Game Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve II 72822 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve   Mpumalanga, South Africa  
Mkhaya Game Reserve   Swaziland  
Weenen Nature Reserve   Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No

Prey / Diet

Vachellia nilotica (Gum Arabic Tree)[3]
Vachellia tortilis (umbrella thorn)[3]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Bubulcus ibis (Cattle Egret)[4]
Buphagus africanus (Yellow-billed Oxpecker)[4]


Parasitized by 
Amblyomma hebraeum (Bont tick)[5]
Amira rhinocerotis <Unverified Name>[6]
Anoplocephala magna <Unverified Name>[6]
Brucella melitensis (Brucella / Brucellosis)[5]
Dermacentor rhinocerinus[5]
Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus <Unverified Name>[6]
Hyalomma truncatum (Shiny Hyalomma)[5]
Khalilia sameera <Unverified Name>[6]
Kiluluma cylindrica <Unverified Name>[6]
Kiluluma goodeyi <Unverified Name>[6]
Kiluluma rhinocerotis <Unverified Name>[6]
Leptospira interrogans[5]
Murshidia linstowi <Unverified Name>[6]
Oxyuris karamoja <Unverified Name>[6]
Probstmayria vivipara[6]
Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Brown ear tick)[5]
Rhipicephalus maculatus[5]
Rhipicephalus simus (Glossy tick)[5]
Rhipicephalus zambeziensis (Lowveld brown ear tick)[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Africa Alive!simum
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)simum
African Safari
Al Ain Zoo
Albuquerque Biological Parksimum
Almaty State Zoo of Kazakhstansimum
Attica Zoological Park S.A.simum
Auckland Zoological Parksimum
Audubon Zoosimum
Australia Zoosimum
Birmingham Zoosimum
Blair Drummond Safari Parksimum
Boras Djurpark Zoosimum
Brevard Zoosimum
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Gardensimum
Burger's Zoosimum
Cameron Park Zoosimum
Center for Conserv. of Trop. Ungulatessimum
CERZA Centre d'Etude Rech Zool Augeronsimum
Colchester Zoosimum
Copenhagen Zoosimum
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardenssimum
Detroit Zoological Societysimum
Dierenpark Emmensimum
Disney's Animal Kingdomsimum
DSI Givskud Zoosimum
Ellen Trout Zoosimum
Erie Zoological Gardenssimum
Flamingo Land LTDsimum
Fossil Rim Wildlife Centersimum
Fundacao Parque Zoologico de Sao Paulosimum
Fundacao Zoo-Botan. de Belo Horizonte
GaiaPark, Kerkrade Zoosimum
Giza Zoological Garden
Gladys Porter Zoosimum
Granby Zoo / Zoo de Granbysimum
Greater Vancouver Zoosimum
Guadalajara Zoosimum
Hamilton Zoosimum
Henry Vilas Zoo
Honolulu Zoosimum
Houston Zoo, Inc.simum
Indianapolis Zoosimum
Jackson Zoological Parksimum
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardenssimum
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoosimum
Jardin Zoologico de Cdad.Buenos Aires
Johannesburg Zoological Gardens
Kaliningrad Zoosimum
Khao Kheow Open Zoosimum
Kittenberger Zoo
Knowsley Safari Parksimum
Knoxville Zoological Gardenssimum
Knuthenborg Safariparksimum
Kolmardens Djurpark ABsimum
Kyiv Zoological Parksimum
Lichtenburg Game Breeding Centersimum
Lion Country Safari Inc - Floridasimum
Little Rock Zoological Gardenssimum
Longleat Safari Parksimum
Louisville Zoological Gardensimum
Marwell Wildlifesimum
Maryland Zoo in Baltimoresimum
Memphis Zoological Garden & Aquariumsimum
Monarto Zoological Parksimum
Nakhon Ratchasima Zool. Park
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africasimum
Noah's Ark Zoo Farm
North Carolina Zoological Parksimum
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
Oasys Parque del Desierto de Tabernas
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Opolu, Opolesimum
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniusimum
Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoosimum
Orana Wildlife Park
Oregon Wildlife Foundationsimum
Out of Africa Wildlife Park
Parc de Lunaretsimum
Parc Paysager Et Animalier Du Reynousimum
Parc Safari / F.A.P.S.simum
Parc Zoologic de Barcelonasimum
Parc Zoologique d'Amneville
Parc Zoologique de la Barbensimum
Parc Zoologique de La Palmyresimum
Parco Natura Vivasimum
Parque de la Naturaleza de Cabarcenosimum
Parque Zoologico Nacional, ZOODOMsimum
Patronato del Parque Zoologico de Leonsimum
Peoria Zoo in Glen Oak Parksimum
Perth Zoological Gardens
Phoenix Zoosimum
Planete Sauvagesimum
Reid Park Zoosimum
Rolling Hills Wildlife Adventuresimum
Safari de Peaugressimum
Safari Westsimum
Safaripark Beekse Bergensimum
Salzburg Zoo Hellbrunnsimum
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquarsimum
San Diego Wild Animal Park
Seneca Park Zoosimum
Seoul Zoo
Silesian Zoological Gardensimum
Singapore Zoological Gardenssimum
Societa Zoologica Di Pistoia S.R.L
Sofia Zoological Gardenssimum
Songkhla Zoosimum
South Lakes Wild Animal Parksimum
Sri Chamarajendra Zoo (Mysore Zoo)
Taipei Zoosimum
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoosimum
The Philadelphia Zoosimum
The Tisch Family Zoological Gardenssimum
The Wildssimum
Thoiry Zoological Parksimum
Thuringer Zoopark Erfurtsimum
Toledo Zoological Gardenssimum
Toronto Zoosimum
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museumsimum
Usti nad Labem Zoosimum
Utah's Hogle Zoosimum
Valencia Bioparc, Rainforest S.A.simum
Virginia Zoological Parksimum
Werribee Open Range Zoosimum
West Midland Safari & Leisure Park Ltdsimum
Western Plains Zoosimum
Westfalischer Zoologischer Gtn Munstersimum
Whipsnade Wild Animal Parksimum
White Oak Conservation Centersimum
Wildlife Safari Incsimum
Wildlife World Zoosimum
Woburn Safari Parksimum
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo Dortmundsimum
Zoo Duisburg AGsimum
Zoo Dvur Kralove, a.s.cottoni
Zoo Melaka
Zoo Osnabrücksimum
Zoo Parc de Beauvalsimum
Zoo Taiping & Night Safarisimum
Zoological Center Tel Aviv - Ramat Gansimum
Zoological Society of Ireland-Dublin
Zoologicka Garden & Chateau Zlin-Lesnasimum
Zoologicka Zahrada Bratislavasimum
Zoologischer Garten Augsburg GmbHsimum

Range Map




Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
4Ceratotherium simum, Colin P. Groves, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 8, pp. 1-6 (1972)
5Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access