Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Perissodactyla > Rhinocerotidae > Diceros > Diceros bicornis
 

Diceros bicornis (black rhinoceros)

Wikipedia Abstract

The black rhinoceros or hook-lipped rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), is a species of rhinoceros, native to the eastern and central areas of Africa including Kenya, Tanzania, Cameroon, South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe, and Angola. Although the rhino was referred to as black, it is actually more of a grey/brown/white color in appearance. The other African rhinoceros is the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).
View Wikipedia Record: Diceros bicornis

Endangered Species

Status: Critically Endangered
View IUCN Record: Diceros bicornis

EDGE Analysis

Black rhinos and white rhinos are not named for their colours, but for the shape of their lips. The black rhino has a prehensile (or grasping) upper lip, which it uses to draw plant material into its mouth. This two-horned rhinoceros has a reputation for being unpredictable and dangerous. As a result it has suffered much more persecution than other rhinos. The total population decreased by a massive 96% between 1970 and 1992, the largest decline of any of the rhino species. Four subspecies are recognised, of which three are considered Critically Endangered.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
13
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
83
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 27.18
EDGE Score: 6.11
View EDGE Record: Diceros bicornis

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  1.21 tons (1,100.00 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  80.47 lbs (36.50 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  5 years
Male Maturity [1]  6 years 2 months
Diet [2]  Herbivore
Gestation [1]  1 year 3 months
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  0
Maximum Longevity [1]  49 years
Weaning [1]  1 year 8 months

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Map Climate Land
Use
Albany thickets South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Angolan Miombo woodlands Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Angolan Mopane woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
East African halophytics Tanzania Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
East Sudanian savanna Chad, Central African Republic, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Eastern Miombo woodlands Tanzania, Mozambique Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Etosha Pan halophytics Namibia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic Nigeria, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia, Senegal Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Highveld grasslands South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Hobyo grasslands and shrublands Somalia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Itigi-Sumbu thicket Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Lake Chad flooded savanna Nigeria, Chad, Niger Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Lowland fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Mandara Plateau mosaic Cameroon, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets South Africa Afrotropic Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Masai xeric grasslands and shrublands Kenya Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Montane fynbos and renosterveld South Africa Afrotropic Mediterranean Forests, Woodlands, and Scrub
Nama Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Namibian savanna woodlands Angola, Namibia Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Central African Republic, Cameroon Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Saharan flooded grasslands Sudan Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Sahelian Acacia savanna Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Serengeti volcanic grasslands Tanzania Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets Tanzania, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Southern Africa bushveld Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Southern Miombo woodlands Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa Afrotropic Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
West Sudanian savanna Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Western Zambezian grasslands Angola, Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Zambezian and Mopane woodlands South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Namibia, Malawi Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Zambezian coastal flooded savanna Mozambique Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Zambezian Cryptosepalum dry forests Zambia Afrotropic Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Zambezian flooded grasslands Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia Afrotropic Flooded Grasslands and Savannas

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Map Climate Land Use
Addo Elephant National Park II 348463 Eastern Cape, South Africa
Amboseli National Park National Reserve II 99624 Kenya
Bamingui-Bangoran Conservation Area National Park II 2783298 Central African Republic  
Etosha National Park II 5699141 Namibia  
Garamba National Park II 1237963 Democratic Republic of the Congo  
Itala Game Reserve Provincial Nature Reserve II 72822 Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  
Kora National Park II 409762 Kenya
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa
Kruger to Canyons Biosphere Reserve   Mpumalanga, South Africa  
Lake Manyara National Park II 78767 Tanzania  
Lake Nakuru National Park II 46472 Kenya  
Mkhaya Game Reserve   Swaziland  
Mount Kenya Biosphere Reserve II 146694 Kenya
Mount Kulal Biosphere Reserve 1729738 Kenya  
Parc National de la Benoue National Park II 414262 Cameroon  
Reserve de la Biosphere de la Pendjari Biosphere Reserve 217453 Benin  
Serengeti-Ngorongoro Biosphere Reserve 5696026 Tanzania  
Skeleton Coast Game Park II 4168395 Namibia  
South Luangwa National Park II 2220358 Zambia  
Tsavo East National Park II 3232255 Kenya
Weenen Nature Reserve   Kwazulu Natal, South Africa  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website Map
Cape Floristic Region South Africa No
Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa Kenya, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania No
Horn of Africa Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Oman, Somalia, Yemen No
Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland No
Succulent Karoo Namibia, South Africa No

Emblem of

Lesotho

Prey / Diet

Acacia brevispica[3]
Acacia hockii[3]
Acacia sieberiana var. woodii[4]
Carissa edulis (Egyptian carissa)[3]
Catunaregam taylorii[4]
Euclea divinorum[3]
Ferula communis (giant fennel)[3]
Lippia javanica[3]
Phyllanthus fischeri[3]
Rhus natalensis[3]
Tinnea aethiopica[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aepyceros melampus (impala)1
Andropadus latirostris (Yellow-whiskered Greenbul)1
Chlorocichla laetissima (Joyful Greenbul)1
Gazella thomsonii (Thomson's gazelle)1
Giraffa camelopardalis (giraffe)1
Nigrita canicapilla (Grey-headed negro finch)1
Pogoniulus bilineatus (Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird)1
Pycnonotus barbatus (Common Bulbul)1
Sylvia atricapilla (Eurasian Blackcap)1
Taurotragus oryx (eland)1
Turdus pelios (African Thrush)1

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Amblyomma hebraeum (Bont tick)[5]
Amblyomma rhinocerotis[5]
Amblyomma sparsum (Central African tortoise tick)[5]
Anoplocephala gigantea <Unverified Name>[6]
Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax bacterium)[5]
Brucella melitensis (Brucella / Brucellosis)[5]
Brumptia bicaudata[6]
Dermacentor rhinocerinus[5]
Diceronema versterae <Unverified Name>[6]
Draschia megastoma[6]
Haemaphysalis silacea (Ciskei tick)[5]
Haematobosca latifrons[5]
Hyalomma truncatum (Shiny Hyalomma)[5]
Khalilia rhinocerotis <Unverified Name>[6]
Kiluluma africana <Unverified Name>[6]
Kiluluma cylindrica <Unverified Name>[6]
Kiluluma goodeyi <Unverified Name>[6]
Kiluluma macdonaldi <Unverified Name>[6]
Kiluluma magna <Unverified Name>[6]
Kiluluma pachyderma <Unverified Name>[6]
Kiluluma rhinocerotis <Unverified Name>[6]
Kiluluma solitaria <Unverified Name>[6]
Leptospira interrogans[5]
Oxyuris karamoja <Unverified Name>[6]
Parabronema roundi <Unverified Name>[6]
Probstmayria vivipara[6]
Rhinomusca dutoiti[5]
Rhipicephalus maculatus[5]
Rhipicephalus muehlensi (Nyala tick)[5]
Rhipicephalus simus (Glossy tick)[5]
Setaria africana <Unverified Name>[6]
Stomoxys boueti[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Abilene Zoological Gardensminor
Africam Safari (Africam, S. A.)minor
BREC's Baton Rouge Zoomichaeli
Busch Gardens Tampa Baymichaeli
Caldwell Zoomichaeli
Chehaw Wild Animal Parkminor
Chicago Zoological Parkmichaeli
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Gardenmichaeli
Cleveland Metroparks Zoomichaeli
Cologne Zoomichaeli
Columbus Zoo and Aquariummichaeli
Dallas Zoominor
Denver Zoological Gardens
 michaeli
Dept. of National Zoological Gardens
Disney's Animal Kingdomminor
Fort Worth Zoological Parkminor
Fossil Rim Wildlife Centerminor
Great Plains Zoomichaeli
Honolulu Zoo
 michaeli
Howletts Wild Animal Parkmichaeli
Johannesburg Zoological Gardens
Kansas City Zoomichaeli
Lee Richardson Zoomichaeli
Lincoln Park Zoological Gardensmichaeli
Little Rock Zoological Gardensmichaeli
Miami Metrozoomichaeli
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardensminor
Mokopane Biodiversity Conservation Centreminor
Monarto Zoological Parkminor
Nagoya Higashiyama Zoomichaeli
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africaminor
North of England Zoological Societymichaeli
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
 michaeli
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.michaeli
Paignton Zoo Environmental Parkmichaeli
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquariummichaeli
Port Lympne Wild Animal Parkmichaeli
Racine Zoological Gardensmichaeli
Ree Park - Ebeltoft Safarimichaeli
Saint Louis Zoological Parkmichaeli
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquarmichaeli
San Diego Wild Animal Parkmichaeli
San Francisco Zoological Gardensmichaeli
Sedgwick County Zoomichaeli
Sri Chamarajendra Zoo (Mysore Zoo)
Ueno Zoological Gardensmichaeli
Western Plains Zoominor
White Oak Conservation Centerminor
Zoo Atlantamichaeli
Zoo de Doue-la-Fontainemichaeli
Zoo de Pont-Scorffmichaeli
Zoo Dvur Kralove, a.s.michaeli
Zoo Hannover GmbHmichaeli
Zoo Krefeld GmbHmichaeli
Zoo Zürichmichaeli
Zoologischer Garten Frankfurtminor
Zoologischer Garten Leipzigmichaeli
Zoologischer Garten Magdeburgmichaeli

Range Map

Link to Map
Africa; Tsavo National Park;

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by Grubb P., 22-Apr-2004, ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System in Catalog of Life 2011
Endangered Status provided by IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2 <www.iucnredlist.org> Downloaded on 11 April 2013.
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 3NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF PLANTS MOST FAVOURED BY BLACK RHINOCEROS (DICEROS BICORNIS) IN THE WILD, K. GHEBREMESKEL, G. WILLIAMS, R. A. BRETT, R. BUREK and L. S. HARBIGE, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Vol. 98A, No. 3/4, pp. 529-534, 1991 4A RECORD OF FRUITS AND SEEDS DISPERSED BY MAMMALS AND BIRDS FROM SINGIDA DISTRICT OF TANGANYIKA TERRITORY, B. D. BURTT, Journal of Ecology Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 351-355 (1929) 5Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2. 6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 gis.wwfus.org/wildfinder
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Biodiversity Hotspots, Conservation International
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
EDGE analysis provided by EDGE of Existence programme, Zoological Society of London
Range map provided by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), Conservation International & NatureServe.
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011