Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Perissodactyla > Rhinocerotidae > Rhinoceros > Rhinoceros unicornis

Rhinoceros unicornis (Indian rhinoceros; great Indian rhinoceros)

Synonyms: Rhinoceros asiaticus; Rhinoceros indicus; Rhinoceros jamrachi; Rhinoceros rugosus; Rhinoceros stenocephalus; Rhinoceros unicornis bengalensis

Wikipedia Abstract

The Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), also called the greater one-horned rhinoceros and great Indian rhinoceros, is a rhinoceros native to the Indian subcontinent. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, as populations are fragmented and restricted to less than 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi). Moreover, the extent and quality of the rhino's most important habitat, alluvial grassland and riverine forest, is considered to be in decline due to human and livestock encroachment.
View Wikipedia Record: Rhinoceros unicornis

EDGE Analysis

The largest of the Asian rhinos, the Indian rhinoceros can be easily identified by the rivet-like bumps on its deeply folded skin. It lives on floodplains and in adjacent forests, and is considered the most amphibious of all the rhino species. Conservation of the Indian rhino is regarded as a great success story. The species has been brought back from the brink of extinction by a sustained conservation effort, and numbers have increased from under 200 in the 1950s to around 2,600 today. However, there is no room for complacency, and the small population is still very vulnerable. Poaching remains a threat, and efforts to protect the species require continuing support.
Uniqueness Scale: Similiar (0) 
 Unique (100)
Uniqueness & Vulnerability Scale: Similiar & Secure (0) 
 Unique & Vulnerable (100)
ED Score: 24.84
EDGE Score: 4.64
View EDGE Record: Rhinoceros unicornis


Adult Weight [1]  1.77 tons (1,602.33 kg)
Birth Weight [1]  127.87 lbs (58.00 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  4 years 7 months
Male Maturity [1]  7 years
Diet [2]  Frugivore, Herbivore
Diet - Fruit [2]  20 %
Diet - Plants [2]  80 %
Forages - Ground [2]  100 %
Gestation [1]  1 year 3 months
Litter Size [1]  1
Litters / Year [1]  0
Maximum Longevity [1]  44 years
Weaning [1]  1 year 3 months


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bangladesh, India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Meghalaya subtropical forests India Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands Bhutan, India, Nepal Indo-Malayan Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Kaziranga National Park II 209988 Assam, India      
Lal Suhanra National Park V 17972 Pakistan  
Manas National Park II 135025 Assam, India
Royal Bardia National Park II 239198 Nepal  
Royal Chitwan National Park II 292637 Nepal  
Royal Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve 75367 Nepal  

Biodiversity Hotspots

Name Location Endemic Species Website
Himalaya Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan No
Indo-Burma Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam No

Emblem of


Prey / Diet

Alpinia nigra[3]
Antidesma ghaesembilla[3]
Arundo donax (giant reed)[3]
Bambusa tulda (bamboo)[3]
Bombax ceiba (red silk cottontree)[4]
Cenchrus ciliaris (Buffel Grass)[3]
Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver)[3]
Cirsium wallichii var. cernua[4]
Cynodon dactylon (manienie)[3]
Dalbergia sissoo (Indian Rosewood)[4]
Eichhornia crassipes (common water hyacinth)[3]
Enydra fluctuans[3]
Ficus minahassae (clustertree)[3]
Ficus religiosa (peepul tree)[3]
Hellenia speciosa (canereed)[3]
Hemarthria compressa[3]
Imperata cylindrica (alang-alang)[3]
Ipomoea aquatica (Chinese waterspinach)[3]
Lagerstroemia speciosa (pride of India)[3]
Leersia hexandra (southern cutgrass)[3]
Lemna perpusilla (minute duckweed)[3]
Mallotus nudiflorus[5]
Mallotus philippensis (kamala tree)[4]
Phragmites karka (tall reed)[3]
Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce)[3]
Saccharum arundinaceum (Hardy Sugar Cane)[3]
Saccharum narenga[4]
Saccharum ravennae (Ranenna grass)[3]
Saccharum spontaneum (loa)[3]
Schumannianthus benthamianus[3]
Solanum ferox (nightshade)[3]
Streblus asper (Siamese rough bush)[3]
Terminalia chebula (myrobalan)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acridotheres cristatellus (Crested Myna)1
Acridotheres ginginianus (Bank Myna)1
Acridotheres tristis (Common Myna)2
Anthracoceros coronatus (Malabar Pied Hornbill)1
Axis axis (chital)2
Axis porcinus (hog deer)8
Bos frontalis gaurus (gaur)3
Boselaphus tragocamelus (nilgai)3
Buceros bicornis (Great Hornbill)1
Caprolagus hispidus (Hispid Hare)2
Corvus macrorhynchos (Large-billed Crow)1
Cynopterus brachyotis (lesser short-nosed fruit bat)1
Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)2
Dendrocitta formosae (Grey Treepie)1
Dendrocitta vagabunda (Rufous Treepie)1
Dicaeum agile (Thick-billed Flowerpecker)1
Dicaeum erythrorhynchos (Pale-billed Flowerpecker)1
Dicrurus macrocercus (Black Drongo)1
Dicrurus paradiseus (Greater Racket-tailed Drongo)1
Ducula bicolor (Pied Imperial Pigeon)1
Eudynamys scolopaceus (Asian Koel)1
Frankliniella schultzei (Tomato thrip)1
Frankliniella williamsi1
Galloperdix spadicea (Red Spurfowl)1
Gazella gazella (mountain gazelle)1
Hoolock hoolock hoolock (hoolock gibbon)2
Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon)1
Irena puella (Asian Fairy-bluebird)1
Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque)1
Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey)2
Macaca nigra (Celebes crested macaque)1
Macaca silenus (liontail macaque)1
Macroglossus minimus (lesser long-tongued fruit bat)1
Megalaima asiatica (Blue-throated Barbet)1
Megalaima haemacephala (Coppersmith Barbet)1
Megalaima virens (Great Barbet)1
Megalaima zeylanica (Brown-headed Barbet)2
Melursus ursinus (Sloth Bear)2
Monticola solitarius (Blue Rock Thrush)1
Muntiacus muntjak (Indian muntjac)1
Ocyceros birostris (Indian Grey Hornbill)1
Ocyceros gingalensis (Sri Lankan Grey Hornbill)1
Organothrips indicus1
Oriolus oriolus (Eurasian Golden Oriole)1
Pangshura tecta (Indian Roofed Turtle)2
Paradoxurus hermaphroditus (Asian Palm Civet)1
Pavo cristatus (Indian Peafowl)2
Pavo muticus (Green Peafowl)1
Platacanthomys lasiurus (Malabar spiny dormouse)1
Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan)1
Psittacula himalayana (Slaty-headed Parakeet)1
Pteropus alecto (black flying fox)1
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)2
Pteropus vampyrus (large flying fox)1
Pycnonotus cafer (Red-vented Bulbul)3
Pycnonotus jocosus (Red-whiskered Bulbul)1
Pygathrix nemaeus (Douc langur)2
Ratufa indica (Indian giant squirrel)1
Rhyticeros narcondami (Narcondam Hornbill)1
Rhyticeros subruficollis (Plain-pouched Hornbill)1
Rousettus leschenaultii (Leschenault's rousette)1
Rucervus duvaucelii (barasingha)6
Semnopithecus entellus (Hanuman langur)4
Semnopithecus vetulus (purple-faced leaf monkey)1
Sus scrofa (wild boar)1
Tephrodornis pondicerianus (Common Woodshrike)1
Trachypithecus pileatus (capped leaf monkey)3
Treron phoenicopterus (Yellow-footed Green Pigeon)1
Turdoides striata (Bengal jungle babbler)1
Zosterops palpebrosus (Oriental White-eye)1


Parasitized by 
Anoplocephala diminuta <Unverified Name>[6]
Anoplocephala latissima <Unverified Name>[6]
Dermacentor auratus[7]
Echinococcus granulosus[6]
Hawkesius hawkesi <Unverified Name>[6]
Necator americanus (hookworm)[6]
Stephanofilaria assamensis <Unverified Name>[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Assam State Zoo Botanical Garden
Bronx Zoo/Wildlife Conservat'n Society
Buffalo Zoological Gardens
Center for Conserv. of Trop. Ungulates
CERZA Centre d'Etude Rech Zool Augeron
Chiangmai Zoological Garden
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Dierenpark Amersfoort
Edinburgh Zoo-Scottish National Zoo
Fort Worth Zoological Park
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoo
Kanpur Zoological Park
Los Angeles Zoo & Botanical Gardens
Münchener Tierpark Hellabrunn
Mesker Park Zoo
Miami Metrozoo
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsaw
Montgomery Zoo
Mountain View Conservation & Breeding
Nagoya Higashiyama Zoo
National Trust for Nature Conservation
National Zoological Park
North of England Zoological Society
Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit KFT
Oklahoma City Zoological Park
Rolling Hills Wildlife Adventure
Rotterdam Zoo
San Diego Wild Animal Park
San Diego Zoo
San Francisco Zoological Gardens
Sanjay Gandhi Biological Park
Schoenbrunner Tiergarten GmbH
Sepahijala Zoological Park
Shri Sayaji Baug Zoo
Singapore Zoological Gardens
Sri Chamarajendra Zoo (Mysore Zoo)
Tama Zoological Park
Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo
Terra Natura S.A.
The Philadelphia Zoo
The Wilds
Tiergarten der Stadt Nürnberg
Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde GmbH
Toronto Zoo
Veermata Jijabai Bhosle Udyan & Zoo
West Midland Safari & Leisure Park Ltd
Western Plains Zoo
Whipsnade Wild Animal Park
White Oak Conservation Center
Wild Animal Park Mechelen Planckendael
Wilhelma Zoo
Zoo Aquarium de Madrid (GRPR)
Zoo Parc de Beauval
Zoologická a botanická zahrada Plzen
Zoologischer Garten Basel

Range Map

Southern Asia;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Hamish Wilman, Jonathan Belmaker, Jennifer Simpson, Carolina de la Rosa, Marcelo M. Rivadeneira, and Walter Jetz. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world's birds and mammals. Ecology 95:2027
3Abundance of food plant species and food habits of Rhinoceros unicornis Linn. in Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India, Pradip Konwar, Malabika Kakati Saikia & P.K. Saikia, Journal of Threatened Taxa | September 2009 | 1(9): 457-460
4Dry season diets of sympatric ungulates in lowland Nepal: competition and facilitation in alluvial tall grasslands, Per Wegge, Anil K. Shrestha, Stein R. Moe, Ecol Res (2006) 21:698–706
5FRUITS RHINOCEROS EAT: DISPERSAL OF TREWIA NUDIFLORA (EUPHORBIACEAE) IN LOWLAND NEPAL, Eric Dinerstein and Chris M. Wemmer, Ecology, 69(6), 1988, pp. 1768-1774
6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
7Nunn, C. L., and S. Altizer. 2005. The Global Mammal Parasite Database: An Online Resource for Infectious Disease Records in Wild Primates. Evolutionary Anthroplogy 14:1-2.
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Le Saout, S., Hoffmann, M., Shi, Y., Hughes, A., Bernard, C., Brooks, T.M., Bertzky, B., Butchart, S.H.M., Stuart, S.N., Badman, T. & Rodrigues, A.S.L. (2013) Protected areas and effective biodiversity conservation. Science, 342, 803–805
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Biodiversity Hotspots provided by Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access